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Of To-Day 

BY J.W. Davidson 













, Moultrie^ 






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ElJcc^fTnter Cr. Ri»rt« 

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NOATH 4 '«CL 0 TE 
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ropic ^ 
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^0 ORV 

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sAo T o 

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from 6 Wuidiiii^toD 

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Al'THUlE. flP' "THi LlVJWfi WJilTRim or THE ; 

S^:ltVUL UJSTlthr of ftOlTH CAROI.INA" ; *'TI1K fXJjlRKSPn:«T>K!tT''; 
^‘TliE I-UETH-V or THE KtTURE,"' Etf, 






r,. \ ’ 

Y • 




0 o T E S T s 


11 . 


JJI^fUHV .... 

Di^cuv'orics . , . 









CfS^dou to Great Itrilain 



R«ln>Kffion to ^pain. 


Cesslun to the Unllcd StalCis 


Territory of Florhlu . 


Sonriiiolo Wara . 


StAto of Florida, 

Sece.'wion .... 

Reconetruction . 





GEffllllArilT .... 



Clihatk .... 





IlundJitr .... 



DlVlSIO>iHi .... 


Firsts Korlh Florida . 



Second^ Semi-tropical Florida 


Thirds Subtropical Florida . 



TIeal-th .... 



JUalarift .... 


Tomadchca .... 



GedlouV .... 



Industrial tVitunjH . 


ilmml Waters. 








SoilW . r . . 


* (!0 

Lraliiage . 





n* TaAVKJ< 





iKxjan RmUfift . 












From JackiiiDnvilIc 





tmitan Kivtr 










Risen yiiu 





T^ike OkeetihobeCF aiid Ihc 





Kc’V WtAi . 


















(k'dar Kevfl 






IViisaeola . 










Waknllu Rpringjt 





Silver S;triag 







Tlio Oeklawaha llivcr^ 







Thu Siiwunrice Uiver , 







Thu ralootiahatcliue Uiver 







The lUver 













HI. Puvl'l.ATlnv . 















(Hd UesiJcnLH , 






N'nnhuni nhij Farelj^ Immi^anUi 




Kegr(»c8 ■ 














IX. Elii't-ATHiN . 






X. Pwi|Jtt(’TIOSS 


























OlLur Ultras Fmita . 






coy TEXTS. 



CoLmnutfl , 
BannTiaA . 


(.■rapciii ntid Wine 
Grand PosHWlitica 
Yet other Frvltft ► 

Cotton . ^ 

J?ilk . 

Lumber , i 

Hiicc H 





Other Eitook 
Pern! try 
Ganlenin^ . 

GpinTii r 


Out of the Waters 
Xl. Sfobtivo 
Hunting . 

XU. Pksts. . 

Iiiseots . • 




. HI 
. M4 
, HS 
. t&l 

. m 

, l« 

, ITS 
. 1B2 
, 183 
* IKG 
, HJ2 
. Ittd 
. lt>i 
- IftS 
. 196 
. 19G 
. lys 
. 198 
. 199 
. 2U3 
. 201 
. 205 
, 2WI 
. 209 
. 217 
. 233 
. 223 
, 225 
, 226 


lltLilffi'fiy Kontcfl 
Kircr Routes 
List of llotels 

* 229 

* 231 

* 23G 


l^fHp of FlorillA 


, J^nrrng tith 

^!ftp of !>it'bjun^ 



. 41 

Thq l^^Rrliiil , . , , 


R ni 

Siruot StMjtic in Jnckttf>iivillc * 



* 7« 

Street iii St, AnjTUStiii^^ . 


f'oTicc lie L^joii FIntel 

tLrro^ Jiitliuii Ttiver. 

. eo 

A llaiMtnock , . « . 

. Hi 

A Scene nn tlio 0(‘kCrtwfthn UhTtr 


. 103 

tlmiige * . , . . 


. i:n 

Orungt'-Tivos , » . . 


. m 

l-^^mon -1 + 1^ R 

, 137 

Jjiiiie^Trce * , . . 

, m 

('oEjoiiti ut-Gro ve 


. 143 

The Ikinnna aiul (lie Pineapple 


. 14(1 

Outtva * , R , . 


. ir>o 

R i.w 

The Dale-Paltn 


R 105 

A C'yprw-Sh ingle Yiiitl * 


. m 

A ITniUer'& Camp , 


. 318 

^ Ir 




Tj!k early hisstory of Florida—its diseoveries, 
conquestSj re^on<jnested eei^ions, and retrocession—is 
as varied and spirited as a romance. 

Disco verifti-^lt i? agreed generally atiiong tlio 
historiaiie that Police de Leon was the lii^t of tlic 
several discoverers. Tliis romantic and entcrpritijig 
advent.ui*er^ Ininting the pliantasuial Isle of Bimini 
—one writer calls it Bedaca—with its precious fount¬ 
ain of voutli, failed indeed to find that, hut readied 
the coast of Florida just north of where St. Augns- 
tiue now is, on Ejistcr Sunday^ the of March* 
1512, He landed the 2d of April, and named the 
eoiintrv, known to the XndiaiLs as Caiitio, Fi/juioa, 
from Paseiia F'lorida, the day of Ills discoverv. Air, 
Fairbanks, however, states that the discover}" was 
made on Sunday. Ponce de Leon did little 

Tfff: FlfflUDA OF TO^TjAY. 

else on that occajiion tlmn to land, oroet l>annei^ and 
1)apti}!e the fair land of lloweni. 

J'lorida wvui next dificovered hy Miruelo in 15IB. 
lie it is saidj some jdcccs of gold from the na* 
tires, which, on hia return to Cuba, tlic general base 
of oixjnUions for the S])ani;irds at that early date, 
orcatetl great oxcitemerit among the gold-hungrj' ad¬ 
venturers of that day. 

■ The next year, 1517, De Cordova led im expedb 
tioii of yjaiuards to the new Kl Dorado; but he was 
apee^hly diiven off, and returned to Cuba to die of 
his wounds. 

The ftiune yeflJ* Alaminos came with three sliips, 
lutidcJ twdec, found no gold, and was soon driven 
a wav. 


In 1521 Donee tie Leon made another hivasion 
of I'ltirhlLi; but he found no gold, waa baffled and 
wournled, ami returned to Cuba to die, as De Cor¬ 
dova bad done. 

Seven veal's later the Spanish forliinC'hunterifs 
Ijogaii to di.seover ami to iiiviidc Florida on the 
western side. De Narvaex, in April, 152S, led an 
exjH‘dition of alw^ut four hntidrcd men and eighty 
horses, whicli huuUH^l in Clear Water Day. He 
landed with three hundre<l men and tlie lioraes, 
and ijiamhed nojtlisvard along the GulDshorc, hav- 


irig oivlercil liis vofSfHsle to eoa^st along apace witli 
his marching troops. Tho arrangement was a hiii- 
lire. The ships lost sight of tlic trooj>s, ami, bafllud 
in every effort to fintl them, montlis afterward re¬ 
turned to Cnl>a, The three luindred troo]>& were 
all, ill one way or anotlicr, destroyed, except four. 
These four remained seven years in the El Do- 
rado, Ijecaine ^^inediciiic-nicn’^ among the Indians, 
and iirially worked their way back, crossing tlie 
Missisvsippi River, to tlic Spanish settbrnciita in 
Mexico. One of these, Cnbeya <le ^"aca—the veri' 
table discoverer of the Mississipjji liiv'er—wmte an 
acconnt of these stirring events* Winle the ships 
were yet lying at Clear Water, a Sjiaiiiard, Juati tie 
Ortiz, rashly ventured ashore, and was left there a 
prisoner among the Indians, known tlien as Mari¬ 
annes. lie remained there eleven years—until tlic 
next discoverer came aloiig-aiid liwi a sort of Jolin 
Smith experience with a F'loridian Pocahoiitjis and 
Powhatan* The name of the interesting heroine of 
this adventure seems to has-e jx^rislied, hut the 
Powhatan was named Ilimhigua. 

In 1539 De Soto, with a thousaind men and 
three hundred and fifty horses, landed in what is 
now Tampa Bay, whieli he ehristetied Espirltu 
Santo. Upon landing, he found De Ortiz, men- 



tioned lit JO VC, who acted as bis guide; butj as it 
turned out, be knew nothing nbout the 
eoiiiitrv, De Soto was in quest of reported “great 
store of crvatal, gold, a!i<I rubies, and diatiiouds,''' 
lliiit lay somewhere to the northward. He sent his 
vessels home, and set out overland to the region of 
treasurefi, wherever that miglit be. He reached 
('lueora, or Chk'ohi—^South Carolina, perhaps—then 
turned westward, and jiassed bo von d the ^lississippi 
Kiver, which In id lieon discovered years before, and 
named Rio Gnnidc, by De Vaca, Do Soto returned 
to that river, died there, and was buried beneath its 
paternal waters. Just three hundred and eleven of 
his thousand men finally reached Mexico, 

III 1545 a treasure fillip , saiUng from Mexico for 

Sp[iin, \v:iA wix'ckcd on the eastern coast of Florida, 

and aliout twfi Inmdixid jjersons craped to the land, 

and thus nnwittingly discovered Florida again. The 

most of these were nuirtlered hy the gentle Stoics 

of the w'oods, and the rest were enslaved. About 

tuentv realms later one of these fllavce made his 

wav to Laudonniere’s seftleinent, at the mouth of 
ihc St. Jolm's Kiver, and a few others reached the 
colonV of MeiieinJei! at St, Angnj^tino. 

In 1540 four Francificati friars landed at Tampa 
ikiv, with the idea of evangelizing the stoical al>o- 



but the noble savag^js tomaliawktxl ilirce of 
ihciii^ and tlnifi eonvineed tlie fomth brotlier that 
tijat kind of a coiKjnoel of Florida ^las hnpractica- 
Ikle—at that time. 

Ten yeare latci'j Do Luiia set out from Vera 
Crii;^ with tiftecn 1 mud red adventurers and a large 
niinilxT of zealous ]>rie8ts; the former to pick uj> 
fortuut^s, and the lattei- to ]>reaeli tlie gospel of 
peace to the cut-throat barhaiiarift, He landed at 
the Eiiv of Ten^acola, then caUed Santa Maria, 
pitclied a camp there, marched into the interior, 
aceoinjd]filled the loss of a g(>,>d maiij meuj and u as 
ordered home* 

In Hil>anlt easue from France with two 

veescls and a colony of JIugiiciiots, and made hind 
near St* Angiiatiuej thence coasted northwarfl, dis¬ 
covered the St. Joliivs River, which bo christened 
the May, and erected a monument of stone engraved 
with the arms of France. lie soon re-cnibarketl, 
and proceeded to make a settlement at JVrt Royal, 
South Carolina. 

In 1504 Laiidonni^re brought a still larger col¬ 
ony of Hnguenots, landed where St. Angustiiie now 
stands, hut promptly rc-embarked and failed to St. 
John^s Blnlf, and there built Fort Caroline. This 
colony struggled on for a year, and, becoming die- 



heartened. Averc prejaariiig to rettirii to tmiico, 
when, in August, 1503, Ribaiilt arrived with about 
six huiulrctl and fiftv other Huguenots, some liav- 
iiiif families. 

Settlement,—The witne year brought ^lenende^, 
Avlio arrived in Joly, 15G5, at St. Augurs tine. U]h>ii 
hifi arrival lie heartl of Kibault and his Huguenots 
at Fort Farijliiie, and promptlj ptii-siicd bis vessels^ 
hilt witlioiit fiueeess. He then returned to St. An- 
giistine, and built solid cat ions, liibanlt rah 

lie<l ijniekiVj nnd set out to capture Meuendez 
before be conIJ complete Ins defenses; but the 
Freiieli Avere driven southj and tinally aa reeked near 
MLitanj:3LS. Meiiendez was equal to the oeca-sioTq 
uiuh taking adAimtngc of the situiition. attacked and 
captured Fort Caroline, lie hanged a luiiubcr of 
his Frcneli prLsonerM npon trees, and put tliis in- 
seriptton over their hanging bodies: JVon- po^' 
sato jfor LutemifuK"^^ The victor re- 
cdiri.stened the fort S:m ilatco, returned to St. An* 
gnstiiiCt tbei’e tii^t heard of Uiliaulfs slii[>wreck, 
liastciicd doAvn to Matanzas Inlet, captured Ri- 
bauifs straggling purtvq jiod, undor the bjiniier of 
the ertjssj bntcliered them to a man. 

This closed the efforts of tlic French to bold a 
colony in FI on da proper. 

niSTOR y. 


^[eiiendoz bold hits jiost at St. AugnstinCj aiid 
tills Juiibtless was tlie tirst pormanorit Bottleiiient of 
KuroiwaJis in tbc L' nited 

In 1507 a {^illaiit Froncbnuin, l.)e GonrguoSj got 
11 j> an oxpcdltiCrti to avenge the bnitid nias&acre and 
irisiilt of Ills compatriots bj tlic Spaniards at Fort 
(Caroline* With three small ve^sek mid a Ijirn- 
dred and eiglity-four men he canic to FloHchi, 
adroitly sccnreil the co oj>eration of the natives^ and 
with these combined forces lie surprised Fort Satt 
—the old Fort Caroliiic—and captured tlie 
entire garrison. He turned the merciful aborigines 
in upon the Spaniards, and a few survived. These 
De Gonrgueri hanged upon the same trees that Jle- 
nemte laid used for the Huguenots, ainl on a 
jiine hoard over tlie corpses he wrote, I do this, 
not as to Spaniards, nor as to outcasts, but as to 
traitors, tliieves, and inurdercra/’ The avengement 
was complete. 

St. Augustine, meanwhile, wis held eontinio 
onsly by the Sijaniards; Imt liolding uas about 
nil they did, except figliting otT Indians, In 
ld4T the dty eontained three hundred fainilics. 
It WEIS twice cai^itnre^d and burned down—^once 
by Sir Francis Drake, i\'ho was rettiniiug from 
a freebooting cxjKsditiou in the Sjanisb ^laiii, 


rat: Florida of to-da\\ 

and oiicejii ] 005 , by Captain Jolin Davis, 

:i biiQ* 

Spain daitiied tliat Florida einbnLe(id nil the ter- 
ritory a^ far iKu tli as Virginia and westward to tlie 
^lI.ssitiKij>pi River—in tliose wtily Spanish day^ 
known as the Jiio Grande. Aeeordingly, when the 
English and Scotch licgaii to colonize the CaroHnae, 
tlie Spaniards began lu tight tliem as intruders ; and 
the Indians joined wliiehevcr side prouiieed them 
the blood. I'ndcr this feelingj in lOTtS, the 
Spaniards sent a fort-e to wipe out the Euglisli set- 
tieineiit at Charles Town, on tlie Ashley River; but 
tlie exi>edit!Oii failed ntterly. Again, in I07S, an¬ 
other Spanisli force was sent for the Baine purpose j 
and tins one inurderetr niany of the KnglLsli colo¬ 
nists, pillaged a fenv plantations, and did a deal of 

petty damage. 

In ItiOd the S[-aniai’d.% under D’Arriola, made a 
settlement where Pensacola is; and, where Fort 
Ihirraneas now stands, they built their Fort Carlos, 
a clnircli, imd some dwellings. 

Jii lT0:i the English Goverimr ^[oorc, of Suutli 
('"aiolina, captured and burned St* Augustine, but 
failed to reilnec the fort; and in ITOS lie laid waste 
the Indian towns in Middle Florida wbieli were 

under Spanish protection, so eddied* 

IliSTOR }’. 


The Pensacola {icttleiiu-iit was desti*oye(i by the 
Frencli in 171S ; and the SpaiiiardBj hi 
on Santa Hosa Islaiul, where hhirt Pickens now 
stands, and rebuilt PejiE^icola. 

These alternations of eoloniKin^, building, capt¬ 
uring, reselling, biirnhig, relinilding, rehiirniiig, and 
so on, were kejit up between the Spaniards and 
Frcndi in aniuiated style for several years, Indeetl, 
nothinsT else seems to have received any attentioiu 
The banner of the crjss of peace vvaved over the 
land, and the tonnihawk kept the £^>il moist with 

St, Murks was settled by the Spaniards in 1718, 

Spanish Florida had three aggressive and troub¬ 
lesome ciiciiiies^—the Engli^^b in Carolina and Geor¬ 
gia on the norfli, the Fi’eneli in Louisiana on the 
west, and the aboriginal tomahawks all around 

In 1743 tl le English Governor Oglethorpe, of 
Georgia, invaded Florida, and otiered l>atrle under 
the walls of St, Augustine; but the Spanish 
adelanUtdo iloiitiano, declined to go out, and Qglo- 
tliorj^e declined to go in—so there was but little 

Cession to Great Britain,—The treaty of peace of 
1748 between Great Britain and Spain closed thesie 



siUornatin^ furayw and tilibiisteringB, WJien tbis 
treaty wai> broken by t)ie war of 1TC2, the 
cajHimid Havana ♦j and iii the treaty followings in 
1703^ (ireat Hrltaiti gave Cnba to Spain in exchange 
for Florida, Tliu« Florida became a Brltieb posses* 
sioiis and enjoyed a rest from Spaiii^s inagnifieently 
little com I neats of empires that had been going on 
so loiig» 

Tlic Spaniards, during tlteir two htmdred and 
iifty years of occiipaney, liad achieved little beyond 
ttiLur niimerons ostentations conquests of nothings 
iiiiieb bhK)dsbed and brutality, and a profound igno^ 
nmee of the country and its resources. At the date 
of tlio cession (ho Eiirf>pe 4 n populatiou of the terri¬ 
tory was about six tliousand five luindred 5 and of 
these niJinv left tlic country at the transfer* 


'J'ho first Hritisb (Toveruor, .fames Gnuit, took 
stejis ]iroinptly to develop the eouiitry* Roads 
were cut, col on i nation cncouriigcd, and bonutics 
olTcred for indigo and other pri>dnction 6 * Dr* 
Turnlndl and Sir ^\’'lllianl Duncan brought into the 
tiTiitorv about fiftceii hundred Minorcans and 
Greeks, and made a settlement near New Smyrna, 
in \"olusiji Chiiintv. 


Florida took no part In the war of fiecession in 
ITTd known as the American Revolution, and was 



a place of nefu^ for djousand^ of loyalif^ta frojji the 
battliTj" States, ^ it was later for furtive slaves 
from the adjacent States. 

Upon tlie breaking out of war between Great 
Bnbun and Sj)ain in 1770, the Spanisb Governor of 
Louisiana invaded Florida and captured Uenfiaeola 
in nSJ, 

Hetroce&sion to SpaiiL—In 1783, upon the ch^sc 
of the wafj Great Jiritain exchanged Florida for tlie 
Bahama Islands, owned by Spin, and thus Florida 
returned to Spatiisli mle. The British eettlere 
promptly moved out, and Sjjanish lethargy eetiled 
over the country again. 

In ISllr, during the late war, the British sent 
a fleet to Pefiaacola and captured tlie forts there; 
and General Jackson was sent to oust tliein. Ho 
stormed the forts and destroyed them, hi ISIS 
General Jackson again inx^aded Florida, in orvlr-r to 
check and cliastise the Seminoles. 

CessioiL to the United States.—In 1S19 a treaty 
between Spin and the United States was concluded, 
and ratilied in 1821, by which Florida was ceded 
the latter power. 

Territory of Florida.—In 1822 the Congress of 
the United States established the Territory of Flor¬ 
ida, with its capital at an old Indian settlement or 



eiiticd TallfihassJce, althoiigU tlic iiret Legisla¬ 
tive Council rru-t at Pensiicola, and tlie second at St* 


Tlic Torritorial Governorsj with tlic beginnings 
of their terms, were: Andrew Jackson, 1331; 
Willimn 1\ Duval, 1822; John W, blatoii, 1834; 
Ji. K, f.'al!, 1835; Rohert Payinond Heed, 1839; 
It. K. Call, I8ld; Jolin liraneli, 1844. 

Seminole Wara,—It wiu^ inaiiily during tljc terri- 
ti^riul ]^H‘i ind that tlie worst of the Seminole wars 
occurred. TIjcsu wars were full of stirring and 
tnigic events, ami but little variety relieved their 
lilooily nioiiotony. A tletailed account of tlicni is 
wholly ininecessiiry here, S|>eakLTig of the earlier 
ludiati eon diets at the beginning of the eighteenth 
eentury—lip to al>out 1T20—Mr* Fairbanks makes 
this comparison : “ In every New England house' 
hold tlie story of the sufferings of the Williams fam¬ 
ily, of the Dust ins, and of Miss McCrca, excited 
the Juast tender emotions of pity. The history of 
the Soiitlieni colonics presents hundreds of such in¬ 
stances/^ if It was hundreds then, it is thousatids 
now* It Is Within reason to say that the histotj of 
Florida itself, as a Turritory and as a State—1321 
to ISr>0, say—can give a score of such tragedies for 
every one so graphically told in the scliool-buoka of 



all the A\e\y En^ltiiKl But tliese ha\"0 not 

yet been celebratetl in song aiuj story. Many have 
not been written at all, nnd are tlnij? far recordeNj 
only ill the hearts and incraories of this ailent South' 
cm people. 

Peace witli these Indiaus is perhaps an impossi- 
hility, and had never really existed ; hut the most 
inipertaut outbreak^ known as the Seminole \rjir, be¬ 
gan with tlie Dade massaere in South Florida in 
J SB.'}, and elo.^^d with flic so-called ticaty of 1S43. 
But there has been much fierce fighting outside of 
that period botli Ijcforc and after. ^I'he word 
mcre htly desenbes the destruction of Major Dade’s 
battalion in Sumter Comity. After the Iflat man 
had fallen, Mr. Pairbatiks states, “the Indians then 
rUJ^hed into the breastwork, headed liy n liCiivy 
painted savagr^ who, believing that all were dead, 
made a speech to the Indians. Tlicy then stripjK^d 
off the accoutrements of tiio soldiers and took their 
aiTus, without olfering any indignity, and retired 
in a body/’ Tlio story closes with these words : 
“Soon after the Indians had left, about fifty ne¬ 
groes galloped lip on liorseback and alighted^ and 
at once commenced a horrible bntclicrv; If any 
poor fellow on the ground show’od signs of l/fc* the 
negroes stabbed and tomahawked him. Lieutonavtt 



Biisinger, being etill alive, started up and begg^sd 
tlic wretelics fco spare Iiis life; they mocked at !iis 
pniyers, wliile they mangled him witli their hatch* 
ets until he was relieved by dcatli. After stripping 
tlie deatl, the negroes sliot the oxen and burned the 
gun-carriages/' One maUj by something like a 
miracle, escaped to tell tlie story. 

I” he re have Ijcen several causes assigned for the 
Indiai/s hostility to tlie white man—encroachments 
of the wliitcs, individual wrf>ngs to property, esj>e’ 
cially cattle, etc.; but the great underlying and 
etiseiitial eauj^a has been the innate blood- 

thirst of the savages. The killing is sweet to them. 
This Inus shown itself ever since the Easter-Sunday 


in 1512 when I)c Leon, the fonntaiii-hmiter, tii'st 
sighted tlie hlooining shores of Cautio. 

Dnrhig tlieee wehts the savages liave times and 
again made agreements and treaties so Cidled, only 
to gain time or to put the whites oil their guard, and 
then resiiiiie hostilities whenever and wherever they 
could find a white tliroat convenient to cut. And 
yet the whites trusted them again and again. Gov¬ 
ernor Reed, in in his message to the Legisla¬ 

ture, said: “ The close of tlie fifth year will find us 
Etrii^i^lln^ in a contest remarkable for magnaniiiiity, 
forljcara.tvo, and credulity on the one side, and 


^ i 

ferocitj" and b::d faith on the other Wc are 
waging war witli heajst^ of I'he tiictics that 

belong to civilized nations arc but sliackles and 
fettens in its proseeiition. Wc nmst figlit tire with 

Gallant officere with brave soldiers were sent to 
quell tlic brutal work of Indian murder and pillage 
—Jacksonj Clincli, Dade, Maeonib, Belknap, and 
others—and alt were l>atde<h Some of them fought 
well, and had edifying talks, and secured excellent 
treaties; but the Seminole was jnastcr of the situa¬ 
tion ju'aetieally, until Genenil Worth went in 

Our forces had captured Coaeooebce, a chief, 
and several of liis braves, and they were en rout^ 
for the West, when (Teneml Worth sent to New 
Orleans and had the party returned to him at 
Tampa. The intervie^v between the genend and 
Coacooeliee took place on a tranejiort in Tampa 
Bay, oil the morning of the 4th of July, 1S41. 
Tlie general and Ins staff were R*ated, and the 
cliief and his companions came forvvard heavily 
ironed, and sat down ou the deck General Worth 
advanced, and, taking the chief by the band, sidd 
to him : Coacooebee, 1 t^ike you by the hand as a 
warrior, a brave main You have fought long, and 



witli a tnic and strong heart, for your country. 1 
tjikc your liaiul with feelings of pride. You love 
your country as we do, C'oacooehce, I am your 
friend; so your <ireat Father at Wa'^hiiigton. 
Wliat I 8 ay to you is true, ifj tongue is not 
f^u'kcd like a emike's, ify word is for the hajjpi* 
nesfi of the red tnmu You are a great warrior, 
Tiie Iiulians tlmmghout tlie country look to yon as 
a lender; hy yoiir counsels they liav^e l>eeu governed. 

'J’liis war has lo-sted tiv^e vears. l^Iucli blood has 


been shed—imicli innocent lilood. You liave made 
yonr iuinds ntid the ground red with the blood of 
women and childrern This war imist now end, 
You arc tlie man to do it; you must niid eball 
nccoriiplish it, I sent foi' you, that, tliroiigh tlie 
exertions of yonrself and your men, you miglit 
induce yonr entire I sand to etnigrate, 1 wish yon 
to state how imiiiy days it will refpiire to effect an 
interview with the Indians in the woods. You 
can Htslect three or live of these meu to carry your 
talk. Name the time—it shall be granted; but I 
tell ymi, as I wish your relatives and friends told, 
that, unless they fiillill your deinandB, yourself and 
these warriors now seated before us shidl be hung 
ti> tfie yards of this vessel when the sun sets on 
the day appointed, with the irons upon 3 'our hands 

ifisTon y. 


and feeti I tell you tliat we imy well under¬ 
stand each otliciv 1 do not wii^U to frighten yoiij 
yon are too brave a man for tliat; Init 1 say what 
[ moan, and I will do it. It is for the beiiciit of 
the white and the red man. Tht^ war 'maftt 
and you mtini end 

Tlie wily chief made a diplomatic reply, and 
evidently counted on making his escape. Conclud¬ 
ing, be said: I now to have my baiid around 
me and go to Arkansas* You say I minft end tlio 
warl Look at these irons! Can 1 go to niy 
warriors? Coaeouehee chained! ^o; do not ask 
me to sec tliein* I never wish to tread ii|ion my 
land unless I am free* If I can go to them 
une/tainedf they will follow me in; but I fo:ir 
they will not obey me when I talk to them in 

V i> 

irons. They will say my heart is weak, 1 am 
afraid. Could I go free, they will surrender and 

General Worth knew bis man. lie told him 
that he could not go free, and remindetl him tliat 
he had not proposed anything of the kind. Jle 
closed by saying: “ I say to you again, and for tlie 
last time, that unless the band acquiesce promptly 
in your wishes, to your last wish, the sim, as it 
goes dovvn on the last day appointed for tLcir 



appearance^ ivill eliine upon the htxlies of each of 
YOU Imiiging in the wind.” 

(’oaeooeliee underetood uright thi^ time. He 
aecejjted the inevitable. He selected fiv^e of Im 
men to carry liis talk to his band in the ewatnps. 
The five went aceordinglyj and they rettirued with 
the entire hand of al>oiit two liiindred ('oacoochean 
Seminoks. They hll went Wcst» 

I liis pot icy of General Woj-th’s availed BOine- 
tiiing» iJnt it was arrested midway by another 
hy the proviBiona of whieli ncariy tliree Invn^ 
dred^ savages are yet allowed to linger in I^orida— 
ill most powerless for serious ill, but a nuisance and 
annoyance, without any compensating advantage. 

The Iwroes, so called, of this mongrel race, 
counting liaek a hiindi’ed years or so, are many— 
SecolTce, PnscofTer, Osceola (As^ee-se-ha-liCHjar, Black 
HriukX duinjKU', Jlicco, Sam Jones, Mieano[>y, 
Alligator, Black Dirt., i\rpeiUa, Ciiitto-Tustenug- 
geo, Coiicotichee or Wild Cat, Ematlda, Otulkee^ 
Halleek-TuBteniiggec, Alcek Hajo, Tiger-Tail, Tal¬ 
lahassee, Billy llowlegs, llospetarkce, and so on to 
a hundred, each and all distinguished for some- 
tliing. One is crafty and silent; another, bold and 
talkative I another, vigilant and far-seeing; another, 
ambitious and boastful; another, skillful and busy; 



anotherj s^ulpine; anolher, feHne; nnothi-r, smikv; 
imd aiiotlier, tigerj—but all hlood-hiiiigry and 

These Seminole wars have cost perhaps twenty 
million dollars, and over thirty thousand soldiers 
have seen service in tliem, of whom about iifteeu 
hundred lost their lives. 

In ^'ovember, 1843, Genend Worth cstiiiiated 
the whole number of Indians in Florida as fol¬ 
lows : of warriors, Semin ales, forty-two; Slicco- 
Rikies, tbirty-three: Creeks, ten ; and Tallahassee^, 
ten; making ninety-four warriors; and, including 
women and cbildren, three hundred in all. Tlu^ 
were niider llolatter Mieco as head-chief, and 
Afisinwar and Otulko-TIiloeko as sub-chiefs. In 
1845 Caj^tain Spi^igue estitnated the aggregate at 
three hundred and sixty* Today, they are reck¬ 
oned to be two Imndrcd and sixty-nuie—st4itetiient 
given elsewdiere—so that the race is not self-sus- 

State of Florida.—Florida was orgiinized as a 
State and adtnitted into the Union in 1845. 

The State (governors prior to the war of seces* 
siou were: Ib Mo&ele^', 1840; Thomas Brown, 

1848; James E. Broome, 1852; Madison Perry, 
1856; Jolm l^Hltou, 18CD. 



Secession.—An ordinance of secession from the 
Fcdenil I'nion was j>assed by a State Convention on 
the 10th of JanuarVj 1801 ] and the State joined 
the C^aifederate States In the struggle for State 
sovereignty in tlie ivar of secessioiij bearing its 
juirt bravely and well. 

At the close of the war a State Convention 
repealed the ordinance of secession. 

hi l8Go there were three Govcrnoi^—A. K. 
Allison, acting Governor; WilliEUn ifEirvin, milb 
tiiry Governor; and Ihivul S. AValher, elected by 
the peojilcj servetl until ]6^i8, wlieii roeonfitriictioiij 
m called, was regularly ushered in. 

Recon struct ioiL — I'lidcr u new CoiiEtitution, 
adopted in ISfiS, si new line of Govcinors was 
inangnnitcd, Hcginning with that date, the follow'- 
iug have been the tiovernorsj with their dates: 
Harriaoii Reed, 18tS8; O, Ji. Jlart, 1873; M. L* 
Stearns, 1873 ; (George P\ Drew-, 1877 ; WilliEirn D. 
Rloxliain, 18S1 ; P>lw:ird A* Perry, 18S5. 

RestoratioiL —The election of Governor Drew 
ill 1877 inarkfi the new era of prosjierity in Florida. 
From 18tl8 to 1877 the reconstruction ref/ime ob¬ 
tained, During that period party polities secniod 
to be the main pursuit of those having the State in 
charge; and other industries were dwarfed by mia- 

i/iSTon y. 


directed legislation or overborne by oiktou» tsixn- 
tioii. The upward and forward hnpiiW given all 
industrial pursuits by the election of Govenior 
Drew, in 1877, was well siifitaiucd and increased 
successively by Governors Bloxham and Berry, 
The extent of the rel>oiind from the reconstruc- 
tional depression, or rather prostration, is elearly 
shown by Governor Ferry in a couirnunicjitioii of 
the 30tb of ifarcb, ISSS. lie ssiys; am glad to 
be able to say for my S^state that its agricultural 
interests aie marvelously improving, that the num¬ 
ber and amount of farm mortgages and liens on 
crops are decreasing, and that fanners are more 
presperolls generally* Their lands are yearly in¬ 
creasing ill value, and tlieir general advaneement 
is marlted,” The assessments for taxation for the 
years 1870, 1S70, and 1S8T bear ample testimony 
to the material advancement of the State during 
the jicriod in question: 

For 1S7». 
For iSS7 . 

_ 3i,7y-l,38» 




Fr.<ii{ir>A h the largt'st In :irea of tlic Statea caBt 
of fliy Uiv(?r^ urn I it Inia an area of cnlti- 

vjiMo liiinl greater tliuii tliat of tlic sis New Eng- 
liinc) »StatL-R. 

Tlio jujlitieii], Jinjieial^ and congiTasionul divds- 
ionw c»f Klorida are not matters of K|K‘cial interest to 
tile fnivcliiig jmliliej and, in view of the State as it 
plaee to visit or to settle in, tliey arts not important, 
in a general way, again, the Stale is divided into 
West, Mid<)le, East, ami Hoiith ; hut tlib division h 
holh vague and arhitriiry, and compamtively mean* 
ingloRH, Tty the Northern a.s to the European road* 
era mind the State is jiretty much a unit; and from 
this niiseonception lias arisen niiicli of the confusion 
of tUouglit, eonilk'ting ofdnions, the seesaw of vili- 
tic’iitioii aiul overi>raise, and the general wholesale 
Ifuten/tracf/, that lias been lavishly written about 
hdiii'ida fur the last twenty rears. 

For the jmrjioaes of these pages —to give a cor- 



rcct idea of tho eoimtr}' in its fiuHent and diverse 
features, and to picture it as it is tu-dav—tlie see- 
tiooR of tlie Stiite are three, whieli for eaiivenience 
may be called Xortlicrii I'loritta, Semi ^ tropical 
Florida, ami Subtropical Florida. The basis of this 
division is climate; and tbc three Floridas will be 
disciis>sed as separate in future pages. 

The physical features of this State, like its 
eventful earlv liistorv and its manifold industries, 
aie vane<l and divei*se. The Ingliest point in the 
State is Table ^Nrounbiiji, in 1-ake County; and 
tlioucjli the barotnetrie iiieasiirenicnts have not been 
very close, a ])resumprion is established that the suni- 
niit is nearly live hundred feet above tiie seadeve), 
r/)uisiana is the only State with a less elevation. 
The liighcst }K>iiit in the United States is Blount 
Whitney in California, 14,S93 feet. 

Florida is a laud of water. In addition to its 
l,ldS miles of salt-water eoast, it has, scattered all 
over its surface, certainly 1,200 fresh-water lakes. 
These vary in si/,c, from Okeechol)ee (the word is 
said to mean Big Water), with it.^ tlioiisand npiare 
miles of area, to the picturesque little lakelet —for 
there .are lakelets both large and small—with ie.-s 
than a hundred square feet Tliese lakes and lake¬ 
lets are uowhere stagiiaut and unseemly with sctini; 



but apo of waters fresh, clear, blight, emiliDg, and 
wboies<jme, often good enough for gctieral use, and 

_ W 

even for drinkincf. Even tlie Everglade waters are 
pure aiul drinkaldo. Tliis clcariic^e and liealtb-qual¬ 
ity ap|XMr as well in the ebalybeate and tlie snlphiir 
Rli'riMps tbat are found in many parts of the State, 
Tlic woi*d ^‘^springj'^ in this connection, iiaa great lati¬ 
tude of nieaiiitigj and some of tlje so-called ^pringB 
arc very large, as Silver Spring, in Clarion Countv, 
two bund red yards in diameter, whose brook is a 
tboroughfare for a line of steamers, and tbe Bine 
Springs in V'olusia Cnnnty, with a basin seventy 
feet in diameter and forty feet deep* Of tbis latter 
a State oflicial gives tbe following description : A 
Imge bowl, froni the center of which a column of 
blue tinte<l water presses upward witli such force 
that the center of the surface is convex to the ex¬ 
tent of perhaps ten inches, ami it is impossible to 
j)ut or kecji a boat on this suniniit, such is the force 
of the hydniulic pressure n]>ward and laterally, 
Tlio stream which this gigantic spring feeds is 
about tifty feet w ide and of an average depth of ten 
feet, with a current of about five miles an hour* 
Tbe Imlian name of the St* John’s River is 11 

jncanlng a chain of lakes. Tbe following arc a 
few of tijc largest lakes; Okeechobee, Kissimmee, 



ToLopokaligii, letukrogn, ^^oIl^oc, Ai><ij>ka, 

George, (^resceiit, Orange* i^I iccasukL'e, Limonia^ l »o 
Funiak, Santa Fe, ami lliifTum* The heights of 
these lakes vary a gtiud deiilj BiifTinn, in Polk 
County, being 133’2G feet above 8ea level; Kis¬ 
simmee, 59^06 feet; and Okecliobee, 20-24 feet 

About Okeechobee, and mainly goiitUward of 
it, extend the Everglades, in tlie counties of Dade* 
Monroe, and Lee, with an aggregate area of fully 
seven tliousaud five hundred ajiiare miles—nejirly 
jis larire as the Common wealth of Massac? lusetts. 
The Everglade waters are, like all the waters of 
Florida^ pure and clear, and varj- in depth frtjm a 
few inches to several feet, rarely more thati ten* 
Tall grass, as higli sometimes as eight or ten feet, is 
yerj’ eommoii, with shrubs, vines, trees, and 

all sorts of tangle and roots. Islands lie here and 
there, with tives and vines oti them—cypress, pine, 
oaks, palmettoce, magnolias, and a score at least of 
other subtropical trees. Fish in in finite variety 
abound everywhere. 

The immense extent of sea e=bope, almost encir¬ 
cling the State, is dotted with islands—is Ian d+? of 
all sizes, from Santa Bosii Island and Key Jjirgo, 
thirty to fifty miles long, to a dot big cuongli only 
to sun a turtle. Beginning at the mouth of the *St* 

Tiff: FLOlflDA OF TO-DAY, 

iliir/s Eivcrj at Feniaudim, wiUi Amelin Island, 
twenty*two miles lon^, on whieb that eltj standwe 
liave on unbroken chain—Anastasia, opposite which 
St. Augustine stands; scores of islands and islets 
along Hillsborotigh, Halifax,and Indian Rivers; on 
down to the Florida Keys, nnnibcring liundreds, of 
which Key I-argo is the largest; on to Key West 
and tlic ] )iy Tortagas; thence northward np the 
Gulf coast, taking in the Ten Thousand Islands on 
the coast of ^Monroe ; and so on by Charlotte Har- 
bor, Tamj)a Bay, and Cedar Keys, to the island- 
dotted coast of Franklin County ; and on to tlie 
liirgtst of all, Santa liosa Inland ; and tinallj on to 
reixlido Point. 

The nyersof the State are unnierous, frequently 
ecrpentiiie, sluggish, and sliallow, but rarely if ever 
stagnant. TJie principal streams are the St, JobiiX 
Suwannee, Jvissiuinicc, Caloosahatebce, Witlilacoo* 
eheo, Apalachicola, Ocklawaha, St Clary’s, Wakulla, 
Chipola, Peace, ^lanatee, Alafia, Honiosassa, St. 
Mark's, Miami, Ocklokonee, atid Ocilla, There are 
nineteen rivers navigable by steamers, to the aggre¬ 
gate distance of over a thousand miles. 



The climate of FloriJa, considered as one, is ex- 
eeptionaL It is, in some impodaut respects, tbc 
tinest ill tLe world. Dr* Baldwin, a prominent 
])hysicSan of Jacksonviile, niaintahis tlmt the State 
occiij)ies a most favorable jKisition in regard to cli¬ 
mate ; for the many modify ing influences in ojxir- 
ation have produced, he sliows, “ a climate that for 
equability has few if any equals and no superior 

Temperature.—As regards tcrn[X)rature, contin* 
ued observations in various parts of the State show 
tliat it is not excessive in citlicr direction during 
the entire year, the range between winter and sum¬ 
mer temperature being only about 20®* The an¬ 
imal mean is 70"; that of springj 71"; suminer, 
80" ; autumn, Tl" ; and winter, dti". The following 
is the Weather Burean’s olticial statement of tlie 
tcmj>eratnrc at Jacksonville, for the year 1RS7: 

Annual mean .. aS' I 

niiim .. . .. . + +#.... . i- .****. .. .!■ + .+ .. ■ .. + + + 10^ P 3 

U LDlmuin .... 'It 

77/A’ FhOlCiI>A OF 70-DA V. 


umy by nycyjiterl an apfjlScable for the nortbem 
j>!iri of Hoinbtropieal Florida, and approximately for 
Mie wIjoIo oriiii^e belt. 

TJie following table presents results given by 
llio Signal Service. The %i2mj fur Florida are pre- 
Hiinaibly t.boHc for JiudcHOiivillc^ for tlicre are parts 
of tbo Hrate n'bere liiis not been felt for a bun- 
f\r(i] year^i. The iigures are tiegroea FeiIj ran belt, 
and llie hihle h!(owh the one point of comparative 





h'loiiilA .. . 




Iji'ulpvliitm-. .... P F P ■ 

, inji 



.. p . ■ . 




iMuKlLITIrl . . p ... 4 . . 4 


— 10 


Vifj^hlill , , P . . 4 4 4 . 4 




4 p 4 . p 4 4 4 4 4 i < . 4 . 



!.■ 1 ih t + + i ■ ■ ih + f 1 1- + 



4 4 4 4 ■ 1 4 P 4 4 ■ • ■ P 4 ■ 




I'lHUKrtlCIlL 4 P . . .. . ■ 




Ol'l'^OII.4 4 , . < 4 . 4 


— 25 


+ + 


1 -a5 


4 4P P P . P 4 4 4 4 4 4 . 


' -30 


Sl'W VlM'h 4 . . p 4 4 4 4 4 P P 4 P 




1 (tftjlO H k««k ^ 1 ■ 

1 15 

— 30 


. p . 4 4 4 . ■ ■ 4 4 . P .i 




hllhL^ll 4 P 4 4 ■ ■ ■ ■ 4 4 ■ 4 ■ ■ P > 




t'nlifiirtllA. ... 


— ^5 


\| II II |i[| iL h h |--h^ m » i. m ■ 


— 50 


As the pnldic mind naturally expects, and iis the 
('alifin ■Ilia have deniaudtHl, a comj>arison of 

the two Slates in the matter of teinpcratiire, the fol- 



lowing figures arc given from the monthly weather 
review of tlie Signal-Service IjiireaUj for Augustj 


/ft Florkln. 



Jacksoiivnio ......... 


f 4 

K^ry Weot ...... .... 

..... S4 

Merritt’s lElinJ 

. n 

St. Aftgiigtijio 

For September, 1885 ^ 
review are these: 


I'aH Bnwtt. llfTi 

lege City. n s 

MiLrlcitn. .........____ Ill 

M IHnir .. lag 

IxKj Angeles ... . ^ + , , , + lOtt 

Siiernniieiito ^^ . H15 

the figures fioin the same 

III Flof'idii. 


LInionii , , +. .. e? 

Key AVest .. 92 

Jlerritt’a IslauLl ... ^, gu 

St. Aiigtiatinc ^... gy 

Jacksonville ....... .. gD 

/ft Otillftmiia. 

Fill HnoifEi. lift 

Lm Anffclt!* . Ii)« 

Miirhrtta,.. la7 

Poway. H .. ^ ](>3 

These two babies answer tlie question whether 
California is warmer in niitlsiiriiiiier tiian Klorifht. 

Humidity,—As to tlie luiniidity [about which so 
much extravagant nonfionee lias been written, and 
wfiieh hasty writei^i have proiioiince<i excessive 
and tlierefore objectionable, Dr. Uakhvin lusistR, 
and with conelnsive reasons, that it is one of the 
fortunate and favorable features, when consid¬ 
ered in tlie light of science. “ Let it be remcm- 


be writes, “ that tlie term relative luimiditj' 
118 used by meteorologists is uot the same as aljsolute 
liuniiility ’’; imd thee proceeds to show liow this is 
iriic, in the following nay: Absfdnte Iminidity de- 
teniiiiies t!io exact amount of vapor in the air when 
condensed into water; while relative lunuidity lias 
relation to the amount of vapor in the air when it 
will be condensed after tbe point of satumtiuii 
is reached, and this point of saturation depends on 
the terniteratnre and tension or foree of vapor 
iletemiined by the barometrie pressure at the time 
of taking the oljscrvatioii* In relative humidity, 
the point of saturation is marked 100, and the 
figures in the coliitnn below 100 are tbo percentage 
of tliat (juantity as existing at the time inider a spo 
citic degree of teinpenitnre and tension of vapor. 
Therefore, the iwiiit of saturation Ls- variable; as, for 
instance, when the thermometer is 50® and the 
barometer marks 30 inches pressure, a cubic font of 
air then contains f«mr gniins and a fraction of water 
lit the point of saturation, 100. When the tempera¬ 
ture is 75® and tlie bareuieter the same as Ijcfore, a 
cubic foot of the atmosphere tlieii contains nine 
gmins aiul a fraction where the air is saturated, but 
still marked 100. At the temperature of 100®, 
pressure as befoix-, the cubic foot of air at the point 


of satriratioii will coutaiii twenty grains anti a fruc- 
tign. Tljiis we &ee that the amount of moisttire m 
the air at dilToreut tenipcnitiirei^ s-arie& in quantity. 
Therefore, the pereentagc.1 given of 100 and the 
different teinpcratiires mu^t also vary, eo that the 
same figures, althongli they may be eorroct i)ereeiit' 
ages of 100, do not iiulieate to us the a’t)sohite 
amount of moisture in the atmosphere, unless wc 
know the temperattire which regulates each point of 
saturation. Time and space will not pen nit a more 
extended ex]>osition of this interesting EiihjccL 
Professor ilenrv, of the Smitiusonian Institution, in 
an article on meteorology, says : It is not upon the 
actual amount of vap>r which the air contains at a 
given time or place that its humidity dejsends j l)ut 
upon its greater or less degree of saturation. Tliat 
air is &iid to he dry in which evaporation takes 
place ra^iidly frojn a surface of water or moistened 
substance. Jlcncc, if relative hiiinidit.y shows a 
small percentage of 100, the ]>oint of saturation in a 
climate where the ah&oliitc moisture is great, its 
effect in protiucing evaporation i« the same as where 
tlic absolute luiirndity is less at the same percentiige 
of 100, indicating satumtion there.” 

Accordingly', so far os Florida is concerned, it, 
with its so-called excessive humidity, is in that 



reHj>ect not less favorably conditioned than those 
places which lx)ast of their dry climates, because 
their absolute humidity is less, and therefore more 
cunducive to health. Bnt the alisoluto humidity of 
this cliinato is ]>roduetive of benefit in modifying 
its temperature. Vapor in the atmosphere regulates 
radiation of lieat from the eartli into the voids of 
space, til us prc\'eiiting re frige ration and sudden 
changes of temperaturCj so iniuiic^d to the comfort 
of mankind, and so <lestructive to vegetation and 
tlic ripening of fruits* 

Professor Tyndall says : “ The observations of 
the meteorologists furnish important, thoiigli hitli- 
erto unconscions, evidence of the iuHuencc of vapor 
on the atmosphere. Whenever the air is dry, we are 
liable to extremes of temperature* By day in miclt 
{daces, the sun's lieat reaches the earth unimpeded, 
and reialers tlie tnaxtnmm higli ; by night, on tlio 
other hand, tlie earth's heat escsipes unimpeded into 
space, and renders the niitiimuni low. lienee, the 
difference between the maximum anti the minimum 
is greater where the air is driest. Wherever 
drought reigii!?, wo have the heat of the day forcibly 
Contrasted with tlie chill of the niglit. In the Sa¬ 
hara itself, when the sun's rays cease hi impinge on 
the burning sands, the temperature runs rapidly 

CU M A 7 X 


down to freezing, because there is no vii[>or over- 
liead to check the cfilorific drain. 

Profesjior T^tkIuU states the jdienoiiieiia In fjties- 
tioii witli further ilJ list rat ion, hut the above is 
enough for this ]nir|K>se* Dr* Haldwin calls atten¬ 
tion to tile fact tliflt the cool nighti^ of the snni- 
inere in Florida, eo higlilj appreciated liy all tliat 
liave experienced tliein, attest the fact that the 
(so-called excessive) moisture iii the air does not 
prevent radiation. Ami again, during many winters 
when excessive cold lias characterized the weather 
of the Xortlijaiid the cold polar waves have been pro 
ci pita ted upon these latitudes, the moisture-tori ng 
breezes from the south meet them, and ihe moist- 
ui-e overhead is condensed into clouds that prevent 
sevei'c radiation and protect them and their oninge- 
groves from tlie intense cold that otherwise they 
should experience. Hut if, as has recently la?cn 
their sad experience, those intensely cold winds, ro 
diiecd to a tcinixjratnre below zen>, he driven iis 
iiortlicra down ujioii Texas and the Gulf and there 
reflected across to this State, the passage of them 
across the warm waters of tlie fHilf, although raiKli- 
fying their temperature, wiil still leave them e(d<l 
enough to ho destructive in their effoeds* Hut thej^ 
pi‘e-refrigeratcd storms of a foreign origin are rare 



vihitors to this climo, and do not count as indige- 
noiiR elements to this enjojable climate. 

To put this matter of relative humiditj in yet 
anotltcr light, the following table, tal^en Ijy Dr. C, 
,1. Ken worthy from otlicial Signal Service sources, 
compares j'lorida witli several other States, and 
with two Mediterranean watcriiig-}>laceB : 

Mean Rtlatitc Humitlify. 





M arch. 

]iir flvd 




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AtlnEitic Oity, N.J. 













79 0 


Diiliitli, Mimii. . 4. 


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- S . 

f-| -ViirtArna /Virfela 

Eut in fact there are 
tliree Florid as, three cli- 
tnates, and three hygi¬ 
enic problems involved. 
In detining these three 
Floridas, tlie lines of lati¬ 
tude arc not the divid¬ 
ing lines. The east and 
the west sides of the 

peninsula differ m temperature more than a degruo, 
tlie east or Atlantic side being to that extent warm- 



cr in winter. Professor A. IT. Curtiss, wliilc cn- 
hi a botanical exploration of tlie State sev¬ 
eral years ago, was the first to call attention to tins 
interesting and important fact. He found that in 
its ilon (-edar Keys on tlie west corresponded witli 
I'eniandina on the east; and in the same w-ay cor¬ 
respond ud Taiiijia ^v'itli I.)aytona, Charlotte Harbor 
with t\ipe Canaveral, Cape Romano with St. Lueie, 
and Cliuhuhiskee witli I^ahe Wortln Lines con¬ 
necting these places rcsjteetively, niay be called 
ifttf/Jond lines. I'rofeasor (Jni'tips concluded fur- 

tlier that “Cape IToniano on the vveatein coast and 
C’ape Canaveral on the eastern may be considered 
the points of <leniarkation between the temperate 
anti the subtropical vegetation.^^ 

In tlie light of these and other similar facta 
sitice developed, it seems fair to divide the State 
into three Fluridas, aa above intimated, basing the 
divbion upon climatic conditions. These tliree are 
(I) Nortlieni, (2) Semi-trojjical, and (3) Subtropical. 
Taking these in this order, severally, there arc : 
rirst. Northern Florida, lying nortli and west of 
a line frt>iii Cedar Keys to Femandina, or perhaj^s 
better the tortuous line of the Suwannee, Santa Fe, 
and St. Mary's rivuiw—a region wdiose climate may 
be designated as 



Second, Semi-tropical Florida, lying f>outli of the 
al)Ovc-c]esignatc<l line and extending to a line from 
the month of the Caloosahulchee Kiver to Indian 
Itiver Inlet—a region wlio&e elimato is semi-fropi- 
eal^ and which may he ap^iropriately designated as 
the Orange Belt ^ and, 

Third, Subtropical Florida, or all the region 
lying so nth of the scmi'ti'opieal orange belt above 
defined, embracing the Florida Keys* 

Tlicse three Florhlas are distinct in geiienvl 
featnivs, climates, and productions’ but the divid* 
ing lines are in no sense sharjx These Florida® run 
into one another, and varying seasons press their 
lines noHhward or southward, and many consj)ieu- 
ous llond featuix^s extend over all. I hit the geneml 
tieiuarkation is distinct, well defined, and easily 

Ill climate the three arc dlstiuctlv dissimilar. 


In Northern Florida the extremes—approximately 
stated, for iniistratioii—are, maximum, 105", minb 
mum, 20*^; in Semi-tropical Florithi, 100* and 25*; 
and in Subtropical Florida, 05* and 30". Tliis in¬ 
crease of equallility or decrease of range as we gK> 
south is at one wdth the scale covering greater dis¬ 
tances; as, New York, Virginia, Florida—the ex¬ 
tremes always coming nearer as w’c go H;outh. Thi® 



difference is the natnnil result of the deceased 
length of the Tnidsnmtner day at ]wnnt5 farther 


Tlic difference between Xorthcrii Florida and 
Seiiijdrr>j)ic:d Florida—aj>art ftt>m and in addition 
to the ditfereiiee of latitude—-is largely dtie Uj the 
greater cleyation of the former, «nd the distance of 
tlio Gulf Stream from it The waters of the Gulf 
of ilexico attemper tlie iiiiniediate coast hue in tliis 
region, but their effect does not extend far inland; 
and the obliquity of the dividing line is due mainly, 
if not wholly, to the warming influence of the Gulf 
Stream in the Atlantic, 

The Gulf Stream is an immense factor in the 
climate of both tlie peninsular divisions. Coming 
tlircctly from the Cuban Heaters northward through 
the Strait of Florida, pressed close to the shoi'c 
along Dade County by the Bahama lianksj it flows 
northward—^this vrust body of deep-blue water, a 
tliousand times the voliuiie of tlie Mississippi Kiver, 
thirty miles wjtle, EUid two thousand feet deep, with 
ii velocity of fiillv five miles an hour—the veur 
round. The temjjomturc of this enormous ocean- 
river is about 84®^ all the time, and thus creates a 
constant stratum of warm air that Aoats over tJic 
land. The tenijKjraturc of the Gulf Stream is fully 



nine degrees above that of the ocean-waters througli 
which it flows, and it loses but one degree every 
five degrees of latitude. Sir Philip Brooke rei^orted 
the temperature of the stream as 80® at the point 
\sdiero the oeeiiu-water was 32®. The stratum of 
warm aii' is borne w^estward across the land by the 
trade-winds which blow constantly fn>m the easb 
ward—at least nine tenths of the time—snininer 
and winter. The stream flows directly along tlie 
Ploritlu coast from the point of contact—about 25® 
20—to Jupiter Inlet, 27®, at which point it leaves 
tbc land^ getting gradually fartlier out to sea. Of 
cotii'se, its influence on tlie climate of Florida grad¬ 
ually decreases a.s it jmsses northward, but never 
eeasefi cntirelv. From the Indian River Inlet—the 
eon thorn boutidary of SeniFtropical Florida—north- 
ward to Fern and ina, the whole coaet is made botti 
milder and greatly more equable than the flu If 
coast in the eame degi'Ce of latitude; and this, as 
elsewhere stated, to the extent of more than one 
degree. And purity accompanies equability on the 
wings of tliesc eastorn winds. They strike the land 
of Florida fresh from the Atlantic, absolutely pure, 
and sweep across the peninsula, bearing with them 
whatever of malaria escajjes dilution, absor]>tioii, 
and dissipation, thus putting the Gulf coast to a 


dit?!ulBO f*ir ab tliefie iiilkicncBB extend. 
\iow h\r l.l]oy extend ]m not l)cen determined, bnt 
eert.iLirily not ver^ fiir. Loii^ riiosB is much scfircer 
uloiiK the Athiiitie auM tlian in most otlicr places 
ill Florida. 

I'jjtiB it will be seen, and why, Semi-tropical 
Florida en joyK nn ecjuabilit.y decidedly greater than 
ilocH Norl.lierii hlorlda. This climate is that of 
NorUiern Florida with its extremes softened a little, 
'riiirt in the |mrt of the State best known at the 
North, Tlie St. Jobidrt River region lias been eo 
fully and ho frequently written ii]i and written 
<lowii lliJil I'ciiderH can not need, here and tiow\ to 
iiear more of this heantifni orange belt. Tlie popu¬ 
lar mistake In to con found thin favored region with 
llu' two otiier h'k>rii|jiS““tlic Xorthern and the Sulj- 
trtqncal—while the ditTerence is considerable. 

Hill the jihcnomcnal effects of the Gulf Stream 
and I lie tmde-wiiids are to lie found on tlie Atlantic 
coast south of Indian River Inlet^ and especially 
smith of iFiipitcr fnlet, where the shore trends west- 
wsml and the tinlf Stream Ileal's rather eastwaitl, 
making for a ]>aasage aiYinnd Hatteras. It is this 
scjiaratiou of tlie Gulf Stream and the shore that 
really miuks the iiortliern bonndiiry of the sub- 
tiaqiicH. In tins eastern side of Subtropical Fior- 



Ida arc found the four equalizing agencies at their 
greatest; to wit, the Gulf Streamj the trade-winds 
the Everglades, with water-surface preventing the 
land-breeze and its corresponding sea-breeze, aiid 
tlie zone of liigh barometric pressure. These 
agencies conspire to increase tlic tnere latitudinal 
differcnee between Semi-tropical and Subtropical 
Florida, Here the midsummer heat that might 
otiicrwise he 95% sav, is reduced to something like 
8S^; and the mid’wiiiter chill that might otherwise 
he, say, 39*, is warmed up to something like 40*, 
The trade-winds, in bringing to the Subtropics the 
breath of the Gnlf Stream, luiriy off all incipient 
malaria into the Everglades, and thus keep pure 
tlie air of that eastern coast, Tiie absence of 
Spanish moss from tliis region proves the purity 
of its atmosphere; for, as a rule, in this latitude, if 
moss does not mean malaria, it at least raises an 
imcomfortable doubt in the premises. Hero, also, 
as nowhere else on the earth except in the Island 
of Formosa, are to be found the most markeil 
results of these exceptional climatic agcncies^an 
equability greater than is to be found anywhere 
else in cither of the gmiid divisions of the Ameri¬ 
can continent. As Florida considered as a unit is 
more equable, tcmjierate, and healthy than any other 



State m tire Utuoii, ao Subtropical Florida stands, 
at least in cquabllltyj in favorable eonfrast with the 
norlhcm diviisious of the State, 

In Slum nary, then : 

The eliuiateof Xortherii Florida, while its ran^ 
of teiiipcmturc is the greatest of the three Floridiis, 
h still more cqiiahtc than are the Southern States 
generally. Its greater range has its special charm 
to many, and ite eiijoyablcness depends npon indi¬ 
vidual tastes. For those eorning to Florida from 
higher latitudes, it is natunilly the most attractive 
part of the State, The frosts arc always light, hut 
they mark definitely tlte seasons and destroy tlio 
insects, clearing the way for a new sjuing. Ice is 
formed every winter, and snow has fallen but once 
in forty yearii, and tlien bai'cly an inch deep. This 
one snow extended over a contiiderahle portion of 
the oiimgc belt. This is the land of tlie T^e Conte 
jiear, as Serni-tropieai Florid ei is the land of the 
or.inge, and the subtro]>ics arc of the pineapple. 
The semi-tropical fruits, almost all, including the 
typical onmgc, can Ijc grown here in Northem 
Florida, and es]>cciaily near the southern line; but 
they do not attain the degree of excellence here that 
they do in their habitat, either In size or in quality, 
Tlie influence of the Mexican Gulf water ie consid 



crabic on tho {^oiiClionL hornier, lyiit, ns the (nilf 
Stream does not reach those \vaterB, tlie inti tierce 
is merely that of an ocean-frontage* There are, 
liowever^ flic daily alteniatiiig lamJ and eea breezcj^ 
wliieli render grateful effecti;- Nortli of tlie range 
atid reach of these breoxesj the dilTerent elevations 
of land, with lakes, rivers, and springs, give ideas- 
jQg variety in warm weather, and produce a niost 
attractive Southern climate; a clitnate vastly sujhj- 
rior to most of the written-up and classic resorts 
of the Old World. Messrs* Ileasoner, perhaps the 
best-informed nurserymen in F'lorida, pulilisli a 
very caiefiilly jjrepared and scientific catalogue of 
fruits for this State. They give, as suiting farther 
north than the eeniUtropical fruits, the following 
among many: Pears of several kinds, including the 
Le Conte and the KeitTer, pecan, Japan phim, and 
grapes. These all has'c Xortheni Florida as their 

The climate of Semi-tropical Florida, or the 
orange belt, is that of Northern Florida, tiKMlified 
by jnoro water tentage, by the partial influence of 
the Gulf Stream, especially on the eastern side, and 
by the slight difference in latitude. Tlie highci^t 
point in the State is well south in this division, 
and the number and variety of lakes in tbia 



mid-Florida lake region—there are three or four 
lake regions in the StAta — tend to make this 
one of great variety and rmnilicrlesS attractions. 
All tliobc and matjy other delectable features Lave 
been given to the }>nb!ie agaui and again* This re¬ 
gion is the J^'forida of the iegions of writers that 
in the last twenty years have lavished tlieir ]>raifios 
and tlieir abuse for the entertainment or the infor¬ 
mation of the A'ortbern public* The fruits of the 
subtropics will many of them grow and mature 
here; but the trees of such are smaller and the fruit 
inferior* The Keas<iuer Brothers, of ^Manatee, in 
tlieir list of trees eallcd semi-tropical bav^e these: 
The whole citrus family—orange, lemon, shaddock, 
graiie-fniit, and lime — fig, Cattley guava, pome¬ 
granate, and jiijnl>c* 

Tlie elinmte of Siibtrojiieal Florida is that of 
Senii-trojiieal Florida, modified by a still greater 
piv^portion of water-frontage, by the full influence 
of tlie (iulf Stream, and by the slight diiTerence in 
Inti hide. It is the most equable in the State* The 
authorities named aboV'C mention these tropical fioiits 
a.'^ suitable for Florida, and it is perfectly fair to as¬ 
sume that, they can not grow to anything like 
perfection any\ t here north of the subtropics^ and 
some of them even there are a little too far north : 

r>i vL^ioxs. 


The ajioiias, siieh vi^ the eheriinnya, giiariaheiia 
(rtonr-SGji), custartl-ap]>lcj sngur-apjtle, the pineaj>|>Ie, 
fiapodiila, cocoaiiiit, luan^os^teL’ii, inaniinee, maTiiiiiee 
Eii|>Dtii, Spanish Htne, mango, agtiacate or alligator 
pear, gaava, ti-es, tamarind^ and alriioiHl, 

TtJl£ Lf A:!i .1, 



(U:nkizal liealtli dcjKJuds largely—indeed, almost 
wholly—upon eliiniite* Ahiiotit all the writing 
alnnit I'loi iila hcaltli—and of the poptjlar kind it has 
hc*en voln mi nous—lias been about that |>art of the 
State elsewhere in these pages defined as Semidrop 
icsil Florida j and a patient jmblic that has read Dr. 
IvenwortliY (>ri the “ Climatology of Florida,^’ J)r* 
J^jgan on “ Climatc-CviriDn Fdodget on Clima¬ 
tology,'^ and the more or less able ])a|>crs of Drs. 
Ihildwin, I^nvson, Deiiistm, Lente, T^e, Johnson, 
Jacrpius, W'ilson, and the rest, can hardly care to 
have the iiiatter treated here witli any fiilliiess. A 


brief snimnarv will sufiico* 


Malaria,—A good deal has been written and said 
about the |neturesf|iie long or Spanish moss as an in¬ 
dicator of rnalai'ia. It doubtless indicates the pres¬ 
ence of certain elemonts—moisture and heat, say— 
tliat are often present where malaria prevails j and 
it must be confessed that, other things being equal, 



the probabilities of perfect healtlifuliicj^ are nitljcT 
agaiust the places 'wherein tliLs bainier of the 
inai'shes abounds. But there are maiiy places in 
Florida cntii'cly free from this moss, tioUbly along 
the Atlantic coast quite near the ocean, as Ix'tweeii 
26° and 27 °; and there are many places where the 
moss abounds that are free fi^oni the effects of 

Malaria seems to he the great biiglwar of the 
partly-informed. The character and qualitj’ of 
malaria can both be a^^ertainctl, approximately at 
least,^by finding the nature afid prevalence of the 
diseases caused by it. These diseases arc well 
known. Even hi tliese, Florida ftaiids better tlian 
any of the other States—better as to frequency of 
malarial fevci^, and vastly better m to the severity 
of such cases. The fevers that are reckoned iis 
arising from this cause are always milder, and yield 
more readily to treatment, than in most other ]iiacc8 
where they are found, and are iiltiiost never fatsd or 
even very severe. 

A dminage company has been o|K?rating witli 
tliirty to forty hands, all wliite, since ISSl, in the 
heart of the KvergladcB, where malaria is iinagriicd 
to abound; and dames M. Krc^ainer, the cliief en¬ 
gineer and general superintendent, in ISSh, after 



fmir years of work there, in his official rc]>0rt, says: 
‘'One of the hc^t attested reeonls as to tlie coiitin^ 
ned liealthfulness of tliis portion of the State is 
shown hy the rciK>rts respecting the condition of the 
force eiiipkiyed by the Okeechobee Drainage Com- 
piny, wliich Inis l>eeu operating on the line of the 
ridi Ijottoin-lands since tlie yciir 188L Our em¬ 
ployes come from almost every State m the Union 
and foreign countries* During this interval [till 
1885], and after a contimious serriee, without in¬ 
termission, during the summer months, there has 

ne^'er In'cn a death from any ciuise wliatevor; and a 

1* * 

]diysidan in a profei^eional capacity lias never vis¬ 
ited our work* Tlic health of our men, not only, 
blit of the residents throughout this district, is un- 
inifKiirt^d at this tiiiic/^ 

Stirgcoii-Oenenil r 4 iwsoii, U. S* A., some years 
ago, in his otlieial report, after making a detailed 
mention of the comparative health-merits of varions 
places occupied hy t!ie army, gives tins iKiinted 
euniniarv : 


‘'As respects liealth the climate of Florida 
stands ]>pediiineiit* Tliat the peninsular climate 
of Florida is much more salubrious than that of ^iny 
other ytate in tlie Union is dearly established by 
the medical statistics of the army- Indeed, the 



statistics of this luircaii demonstrate the fact that 
diseases that result from malaria are of much milder 
tyi>e in the Peninsula of Florida than in auv other 
State in the Union. These records show that the 
ratio of deatlis to the iimnhcr of eases of remitting 
fever has l>eeu much less than among the trooi*& 
serving in any other portion of the United States. 
In the Middle Divisiun of the United States the 
propoi'tion is one death to thirty-six cases of remit* 
ting fever; in the JKorthem Division, one to fifty- 
two; ill tlie Southem Division, one to fifty-four; in 
Texas, one to seventy-eight; in California, one to one 
Inindred and twenty-two; in New Mexico, one to 
one hundred and forty-eight; while in Florida it is 
blit om to two hundred and eighty'Seven, In short, 
it may he asserted, without fear of refutation, that 
Florida possesses a much more agreeable and salu¬ 
brious climate tlian any other State or Territory in 
the United States.” 

The sanitary fpialities of the Flo rid climate are 
impoitant. Tlie best informed medical advisers 
send at least two classes of patients to this Stite— 
consumptives, or those suffering from ftomo iliscasc 
of the respimtory organs, and tlio&e broken iti 
liealtli without any wcll-delined special form of 



Upon the former clasfi of tlieEc—coiiRumptives^— 
tlic United States census reports give the facts 
enilmdied in the following table: 

Iknlhs from tJt 

Mmine^ .. 258 

New Hamp^hlro.. ■ ■ ■ 

Vermont £02 

UliQftc Island .. 201 

MassachiiHoU»... lOU 


Connecticut .*, *. IIP 

t ^InO ■■ frdi-ta-k'fc Bhav « Iril 

WeetVirgitjift.. \1A 

Kciitiickj?.. 1T4 

Mnn'lnrid... 172 

Nfw Jersey ..... i^^. 171 
Mk'lil^an IfiU 

New York ............... IPS 

TunnessM.. 16(1 

Indlann .. 164 

Pennsylvania*... H2 

If 00 Deaths from itU Cfintfs. 

California,..,... 1S8 

Virginia,.. 188 


^iiniiesota ..,*,..**.***.. Ilt8 
Wiscon^iiii ,.*..**.;.*..** 181 
N'orlli Carolina 117 

[Illinois__ * * * *___ 108 

[.otiisiana 07 

Mlssoufi... 07 

IvftTisaa *.*.**.■**.. + + ■■•■ OO 

Roittli Carolina .. 00 

!Missisaip[]i. 70 

Alabama 71 


Arkanii^as. 70 

j ('8 

1 Tesas* *. 63 

; Florida..,... 08 

This table is hotter than a vohirne of arguments 
and laudatory geuerjiliticis, cspeciidlj'' wlien consid- 
ercti in view of t)je patent fact tlmt something like 
fifty jior cent of the deaths front ooiismnption in 
Florida are iinporled cases— sent tliitherj too 
often, when the patients were so far gone as to he 
lieyond the liO|>c of recovery. It is safe to ndd that 
cases of tliis class originating here are almost iiiva- 
riablv inherited* 

HE Aim 


rpon tlie otlier claims of casoa benefited by i'lor- 
ida’s feiinutory eliniute—broken liealtli, or brain^fu^ 
—a few woixls from Dr. Kenwortljy, a man fhor- 
oiigldy acfpiaintcd witli Florida's eanitarj and eana- 
torj features, may &ufiicc: “In tliis active IniEiiiess 
country wo find many j)ereons wlio Jiavo been over¬ 
worked and present a broach in tlie cliuin of tliOJie 
vital processes whoso con tinnit y constitutes Lealtb— 
a condition popularly known as ‘broken health.’ In 
Florida, the ’^vom-oufc man of business, sufferings 
from ‘broken licalth/ will tirid the neccsssarv relax- 
atiun from bnun-fEig,’ opportunities to hike out¬ 
door exercise, plenty of snnj^hine, pure and liracirig 
air, and other necessary adjuncts to relieve a condi¬ 
tion affecting the many. In this connection I can 
not refrain from referring to what I consider an im¬ 
portant faet. From iny observations in the United 
States and in foreign lands, and In lioapital as well 
as In private pmetiee, I have licen forced to notice 
the infrequency of chronic diseai=c and broken 
liealth in Florida. In my visits to various portions 
of this State 1 liave met with inaTiy peiwons, old 
and young, who live from year to year on imjirojicr 
food, and who drink water from shallow holes, near 
marshes^ and yet, eingnlar to say (altliough such 
persons are somewhat anajnnc), they do not present 


any manifest diseased eomiitum. In cities, towns, 
vilhigeSj ami rural districts, where residents are 
plicd with proper food and drink pure water, a 
ease of chronic disease or broken health is seidoin 
met with* And if wo Lave a climate in which 
these conditions nircdy occur, are we not justitied in 
concluding that it will exert a ]>owcrfnI indnonce in 
restoring the invalid to health ? As most of you 
arc avvare, I liave at vanous times visited many 
portions of the State, and luivc been surprised to 
meet so many persons wlio have settled in it as in¬ 
valids, and liave been restored to health or com parti¬ 
tive comfort by tlic climate—a large projxirtion of 
them having been sufferers fmin pulmonary dis- 

Tornadoes,—In tlie light of meteorological ob¬ 
servation during the past decade or two, it is per¬ 
fectly safe to assume that. Florida as a wliole k as 
safely out of the line and sweep of tornadoes and 
hurricanes as any State in the Union, and rather 
more BO than some of the IN^ortliwestern'States and 

So mneb for the climate of Florida as a uult. 



The geology of Florida m full of interest, mainly 
prospective, altlioiigh no genoral survey lias vet 
been made. Dr. J* Kost, the first and present 
State Geologist, has issued one report of results, 
and the public await with profound iiitereet tlie 
further prosecution of the work. A preliminary 
inspection is all that has been thus far ajccom])lislied, 
l>ut that has afloided glitripses of rich treasures in 
tlie fields of both mineralogy and paleontology* 
Dr* Kost finds the geological formations of Florida 
to bo the equivalent of tlie Tertiaries of the Paris 
basin in France and the vale of the Thames in Eng¬ 
land*’^ Jle reports fossil remains, not only of the 
mastodon, zeuglodon, and earcharodon, but al&tD of 
the rhinoceras, hippopotamus, llama, peccary, leop¬ 
ard, tiger, hyena, lion, camel, and elephant j and 
species of bimana.’^ One of the three niastotlon 
skeletons found is of exceptional size and \\ ill l>e 



set up for tlie St^te ^Iiisexmi; and it will be tlie 
lar^^st one of a mastodon on record; and, Tiext to 
that of tlie whalcj tlic largest known of any aiiiinaL'^ 
The inineralogical seope is also considerable* 
Dn K(jst finds lime, iron, and snlplnir widely dis¬ 
tributed ; witli silicon giilore, and pota&sUini, so- 
diam, magnesium, aliimlniiin, and pliospliorus. Oth¬ 
er iuitiiorities rej^ort load. Agates of clialcedony 
and opal are rojsorted as found near Tampa. 

Nothing lias been discovered, it appears, knver 
tlian the Tertiary period; but tins is abundantly 
and fully represented in all its subdivisions, Tbe 
Koccnc is of considerable deptli; the Miocene and 
tlie Fleiocene, less; while over nearly all lies a 
heavy sjrroad of Pleistocene or i^ost-tertiary. 

The doctors disagree sadiv as to the formative 
agencies that made this peninsula and tlieir pro^ 
cesses. Some years ago, sucli men as Agajssiz and 
Joseph Jjii Conte, after examining the Atlantic side, 
told ns tliat this south ward-i>oin ting land was uti- 
derhiiilt by corals and iij)raisecl in successive tiers. 
Later, Heilprin exjfiored the Gulf coast, and failed 
to find any con Urination of the coral-reef theory. 
He confidently asserts: “On the eoiitrary, the ex¬ 
istence of tlie heavy fossiliferous deposits about 
Tampa, on the Mauatee, along the tributaries of the 


I3ig imd the Little Suniaotii IhtvSj and more partiui- 
larly tliose exposed on tlio Ciilotwahatchce, eoiiclii- 
lively proves that a eoral extension to the Southeni 
United States, such as has l>een theoretically set 
forth, does not exist in faet/’ Of the eoral, lie 
maintains, the structure is liiiiitcd and local. Or. 
Jvost thinks it almost absurd to venture upon any 
statements concerning tlie principles of tlic geologi¬ 
cal forniation of the State, lie adds, however, tliat 
when the Eocene rocks were in coni'se of deiK)sit, 
the Tertiary was rc])osing at tlie bottom of the sea, 
from one hundred to several hundred feet deep, and 
was, for a time at least, sinking slowly—^tluit is, at a 
pace correspond cut to the contiiiuoiis building of 
coral I'cefs. This Eocene deposit, though new gco- 
loiricallv, is in secular dironologv very old, be- 
cause it dates back to a time anterior to tlie n})- 
lieaval of tlie lower half of the Kocky Mountains. 
In coni-se of time, the bottom of the sea began to 
rise, at first slowly. During this period occurred 
the Oligocenc deposits. Later, the dry land a^> 
peared, and the Pliocene deposits were made; and, 
ill the after*age, the land was submerged again, the 
submergence embracing not only Florida Init also 
Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, and parts of 
Tennessee, Arkansas, and Texas — the whole to 



cmcr^ 11 Kcicond time, rjid to liee to its presctit. 
kveL The State Geolo^st finds, further, that an 
extensive anticlinal, of an axis parallel with that of 
the peninsula, trends ecntrallv through the peniii' 
Eula*” Tliei'e are to daj indications, especiallj on 
the eastern side, of a rise of the land now in prog¬ 
ress. i>r J* Dahriej Palnior finds the origin of 
this peninsula in the changes wrought hy the “ rise 
of the Appalachian Monntains,^^ which diverted the 
(fulf Stream from its former channel up tlie Mis¬ 
sissippi Valley. This caused an eddy eon ill of the 
then land ; and sand-hars resulted and sediment and 
coral insects followed. “ And tlius it has been go¬ 
ing on for ages—sand-bar and deposit, and coral 
reef. And thus the hnilding and extension of the 
peninsula continue to tins clay. The gradual up¬ 
heaval of the land has lifted the northern and cen¬ 
tral [jortions of the peninsula far above the sea-lcvel. 
Tide elevation will probably increase, and tbe Ever¬ 
glades become dr}-, even if not assisted by artifieial 
means. Tlie digging of wells, etc., has disclosed 
this great variety of fonnations throughout the 
State. It is not infrequent that as beautiful de¬ 
posits of coi'sil are disclosed high up in the peninsula 
and Xortheni Florida as are to be fnnnd on the 
reefs south of Cape Sable. Sliould these causes 

uoiitiinie, the deo}> ehiunicl of tli& (iiilf Stream may 
he closed, Cuba annexed by natural the val¬ 

ley of the Mississippi be extended, and llie (Tiilf ttf 
^[exifio become a fertile plain,’’ Tlic indications, 
ahmjT both the Atlantic and the Gnlf side, are con- 
firmatorv of the theorv tbiit the land is still rising 
eloxvly^-more slowly, it is confidently believiHi, than 
the operations of the Atlantic Coast and Canal Com¬ 
pany’s dredging corps. 

Industrial Features. — The industrial arts find 
some valuable mineral deposits among these rock 
materials. Dr. Kost states that several localities 
have l)ccn found to have large deposits of rich 
]>hosphatcs, deposits quite as rich in phosphoric 
acid as are the phosphate rocks on Cooper and 
Ashlcv Kivei's in South Carolina, from which im- 
irieuse revenue has been derived. These Florida 
beds show phosphates of lime, of silica, of alumina, 
and of iron. They are indicated by phos]>horic-acid- 
bearing rocks in the counties of Wakulla, Alachua, 
Marion, flillsbomugh, and Manatee. In AVakulla 
the State Geologist finds a triple phosphate of lime, 
iron, and alumina, indicating exceedingly valuable 
beds, the samples analyzed showing in one instance 
‘J3'85 per cent in phosphoric acid, equivalent to 
59‘05 per cent hone phospliate of lime (CagPjOe). 

THt: FTA}]!il}A OF TO-DA V. 

Slid! marl of marine clejKisit is foiiml in nearly 
all jiarts of tlie State, and iuexbaustible fertilizing 
inarMxds underlie tiie soil almost everywlieix^ 


Limestone is to be found iJi nearly all parts of 
tlie State; a large pi-oportion of wliieb, bosvever, 
will not yield a quality of lime* The rock is 
generally too silieious, and slacks poorly; yet Pro¬ 
fessor Piekcl, of the State College, found by analy¬ 
sis of carbonate of lime, being equivalent to 

f>2'4fi per cent of quicklime. 

Clays exist, especially in Kortliern Florida, of 
wbicli passably good bricks are made; but the 
|jrescnee of too nmeb either of Ume or of sand 
often prtivents the best results in tins direction. 
Cllays sufficiently fine and jmre for pottery are to 
lie seen at various points, in lower stmta, where 
coarser varieties occur. 

Kaolin has been found in numeivius locaHties; 
but thus far little is known of its quality or quan- 

Iron-ore is found in Xortliern Florida, and in 
Jackson County a “nitlier extensive deixisit” is 
reported; but nobody seems to believe that it exists 
anywhere in |>aying quantities. The ore is of the 
Jiruonite varietv* and is not the best. It is to be 
found in all parte of the State* There are several 


dialybeate springs \\'liose medic!UEil qualiticB have 
been tested* lh\ Kost thinks that a large proper* 
tion of the nmiiing water of wells and springs is of 
the chaljdieate diaracter; in springs and wells these 
arc commonly called beeanse of the 

presence of sulphureted liydrogen occasioned by 
cheiniciil action* Nearly all the clays are etaiiicd 
liy “oxides of iron.'^ 

Coat k present Lignite htis been nneartbed in 
Kortheni Florida, Dr. Jvost discovered, in Hanta 
Eosa County, a vein about thirty inches thick. 
Tliis Tertiary coal is similar to that found along the 
Northern Pacific Railroad and used on that ri>ad* 
An artesian well, sunk during the present year in 
Marion ConntyH, it is stated, passed through a vein 
of eoal some fifteen to eighteen feet thick, at a 
depth of nearly six hundred feet. 

Limestone, <piarried for building purposes, exists 
iii Northern FJorida* It is, however, for the most 
part, soft, porous, and liable to imbibe moisture; 
but the Union Bank building at Marianna, in Jack- 
son County, built of this material, lias stood now 
fioine forty years, and is to-day in a good state of 
preservatiotn Chiiniieys are frequently" built of it* 
It 1 jas been pretty extensively used in Hernando 
County for both building-walls and chimneys. 


I’liiit-roek is avuilable for rough walls, and 
will last till the enJ of time* This is found as f;ir 
south as Sumter Comity, in Semi-tropiciil Florida, 
Arrowdleads, spear-points, and rude knives were 
made of this Hint by the Indians or tlieir prede- 
cessoi"s. In Northern Flonda it ahouiids along the 
line of the railroad in Suwannee and Alachua Ooun- 
tics. Dr, Host says: ‘^This rock wjis evidently 
dc]>ositcd from solution by ]yre5erice of lime and 
potash, witli the silica in tlie waters of the later Ter¬ 
tiary, as the shell remains of the echinoidca, pecten, 
etc., appear with their own shell tissue, often in 
full integriiy.” 

Sandstone occurs in many places* It is soft, ita 
cementing principle being impaired ‘Miy dilTusion 
of aluminous materials pj-cviously oxidi^ed.^^ 

.Marlde, of stalactite and stalagmite varieties, is 
to be found in the eaves of Jackson County and 
some other localities. Ceilings, doors, and walls of 
the caves are covei'cd with this marble* It is in 
some instances Jieautifully white and translucent 

Coquina—-a shell limestone, as the name im¬ 
plies—exists in many places along the Atlantic 
coast. The texture of tlie rock, Di\ Kost writes, is 
very interesting, from the integrity of the ma- 
terhd. It dresses moderately well, leaving a corru- 



gated tfurfaee of rather agreeable aspeet. It is very 
(iiiral>leT as is ]>roved 1>y tlie integrity of tlic walls 
of 8t. Augustine, those of the old Bpanisli Fort JSan 
^lareo^ and of the old eatliedral at the same jdaee— 
some of these a matter of two eeiitnrics okh 

Coralline is aljundantj espeeially on the Atlantic 
eoiist south of the cr>r[nina legiori. 

Bat cojierete—ot simd, elaells, and lime or^ 
better, ccnient—is inore eEtsily managcrl than eitlier 
erKpiiiia <ir eoralline, cheaper, and doubtless equally 
durable ; so that its use is likely to supersede both 
Ibe other liitlierto favorite building materials. It 
lias been used extensively in several plates, notably 
at (-edar Keys; and, more recently, in a inoditied 
form in the erettion of tlie palatial hotels at St. 

Mineral Waters*—Tlie great variety and abinv 
dance of mineral deposits in Florida naturally give 
nmnerous min end Rpriiig.?. The mineral waters are 
in the iniiin solutions of lime, alinnina, arid iron; 
hut magnesia, soda, sulphur, and potasli occur fre- 
(pientlw and iodine and bromine somewhat rarely, 
IMnce do Jveon's Fountain of Perpetual Youth has 
been discovered a score of times, pretty much all 
over the State, and the modern wonder is that that 
grandiose Aih.hmt.ido himself could not find it, 


TflE FJ.OnUhX OF TO-hA\\ 

wlicn it is so numerous k^day. Amoug tlje initiei-al 
springs conspicuous are the Kewj)ort Springs, on 
St. Murk’s Kivcr, hi Wakulla (’ounty; the llaiiip- 
ton Springs, of Taylor County; the Wlrite Sul- 
jiliur Sjiriiigs, of rjumiltoii County; ttie Suwannee 
Springs, of Suwannee County; and tlie Green Cov^c 
Springs, of Clay County* 

Soils.'—Tl]c soils arc usually classed m sec¬ 
ond, and third mte pine or sand lands, high and low 
liainnioeks, and wwainp laruJs* 

Of the pine lands Dr, Kost say^: Tlie sand 
tlcpo.sits of I''lori<la laiuls arc very generally mis¬ 
judged* Tliey are g<.uicrally etstimated by the tour¬ 
ist by wijat lie liiu^ Ijcen conversant wltli in deposits 
of * sand-hanks’ in Northern localities, distant from 
the sea, which are geiitrfLlly wind-drifts or drifts 
from fresli-water hays or lakes, and tlie sand is cpiitc 
lialile to lie clean and free from earthy or saline 
inixtmw. Ibit here in Florida the accumulations 
are from calt-water l>ays oi’ sea-coasts, and they am 
never free from marine salts, or more especially hav¬ 
ing the presence of the dnst of marine sIlcUb, in the 
form of carlionato of lime from organic forms or 
shells of nuillusca. IJeuec the sands of Floi ida arc 
far more productive as comjiarod to otiici's than arc 
those not of recent marine deinvutiou* It hapriens, 

GEOLoa i: 

tlierofore, that tourists who liavo opjioi tunity to in¬ 
spect grow 1 Tig crops on the ^Aundtj barrens’^ arc 
not a little jLstonished to see respcetaldy good crops 
grown on sucit lands* Hiniihir sand dejiosits eUc- 
wliere—that is, in the adverse ctrcunistancos—com- 
inorily are found to he almost com]>Jetet 3 ’ barren/’ 
llunins is the general need of the sand laiuJs. 
iJatninoeks may be defined as hard-wood lands, 


the high being either al hi vial or eday^ the low being 
of in finite variety lioth as to wetness and to mater iah 
Swamps are either sand or low hsmiinocks in 
pn>ecss of format ion. 

Brainage.^—( ierinane to tliD matter of soils is the 
3‘cclaiining of lands. Jn Subtropical Florida espC’ 

dallv there? is inncdi overllowed land, and a drain- 


age coni[>:uiy has undertaken to reclaim lands on 
shares aroniul Okcechohee as a center. IIc?re am, it 
is estimated, about eight million acres of water- 
covered land—Lake Okeochol.>eCj of a thousand 
sipuiR^ miles, and the Kverglades, iuoi-e than ten 
rinu'S that ari'a. The company began operations in 
1881. In 1887 the Logislatiim sent a committee to 
eNinnine and report results. They first visited Lake 
Hast Tohopekaliga, and their report states: “We 
tiiid the lake fight feet two iiicLcs below its origi¬ 
nal level, witli a luindsonie beach of firm wliite sand 



three or four liuiulred feet widOj hun] and level, 
ivliore formerly waB Beveii or ei^lit feet, of watei". 
We iiiid tlje siiiTtnindiiig n!ar&]ie3 and eyprees 
art^ dry and ready for the plow, . , . All 
these latidw aits in the UigliOBt state of eiiltivation, 
with handsome crops of siigar-eane, corn, ]JOtatoej;, 
and viirioiiB vegetahles, all vigorous and thrifty, 
'file hiiid-i are exeeediiigly fertile, and tliongh Init 
recently freed fruin two to four feet of standing 
water, are now dry and tit for all erops of a tcin- 
]>erate or subtrojncal climate, . . . Hixty-live tons 
(»f cane, seventy Irndjels of corn, seventy Inisliels of 
rice, laave heen ra^^3ed per acre on these lands. 

All tins is en couleurde roise certainly. 

Toward the draining of Okeechohee directly the 
Drainage Oumi>any cut one canal forty-six feet wide 
and ten feet deep from tlic lake coimccting it with 
tlie ( -aloosahntehee Jiiver, wldch tiows into the Gulf 
of ^[exi{■o. The eomiiany seems to have piddislied 
no report of recent resiiltB of tliis part of its 
work ; hut Mr. Jolin Jk Hickey, of Fort Myers, on 
the (kdcjo.saliatchee Diver, writes that Liike Okee- 
choliee is now three feet below its normal level* 
Tile immediate friends of this enterprise appear 
\ erv ]iot>cfnl of early nnd cfunpletc success. Many 
others arc loss hopeful. As Gkeeehobee is 20'44 



feet Libovc sea level, aiKl as tlie Evergktles-level at 
Italic AVorth ifi sixteen feet filiovc tliat lake, and aji 
tlic Kvei'^ladcs level at Miami is 5’5 feet above tbat 
of J^ihcayne Ikiy, it not fieetn iinpossible that 
at least a ^^reat prt of these Everglades n'aters ii^ay 
lye dmitied oiL It seems to be a ijiiestioii mainly of 
eaTja! eajiadty* 

liters on hvitieiie maintain tliat llie coiidb 


lifyiis nbeyve f^iven—removal of water from exten¬ 
sive an‘jLs of Hell alluvial lands and eiiltivatiun of 
the same—must evolve malaria, Tlie healthful ness 
of lids nHdaiiiied 1 x 1 ^ 1011 , lioweveij is vouched for, 
at k’iist f<M* the tirst four years of the Drainai^e 
(Joiufiaiiy's operations—IIjv to l8S5^as appears in 
Its report ^jttoted elsevvliere in these pag^s in treat* 
ing of malaria. It kept nearly forty white men at 
wru'k summer ami winter for throe or four years?, 

V T 

and hml not a single ease of malarial fever. This 
re|yort ^nes far to iirovo that malaria is not as 
valent as is popularly believed, at least in that 
E\er^ladv-lake n^^toin AVhat future developments 
are to hiiug f<uth ixsinains to be seen; and it is pos¬ 
sible that these verv operations rnav chaiifre thiuo^ 
ill that regird; hut, to-dav, assuredly there is no 
great reason to he alarmed about nuilaria. A very 
few more real's of drill iitng will settle that question. 



Tkavkl to Florklii h jiieroiii^uig from yoar to 
year* [loiUtbf pkii-sure, and praiit are tlie three 
guitiitig Btars. Tlic.-^e motives extend and Ineroaee 
witlj tlie (icvelopmetit of the country; and healtb^ 
]Measure, and prolit seekers rjipidiy become immi- 
gnmts and horne-seokors. Over sixty thousand 
tourists visited the State duriJig the jiast season. 

How to reach Florida is the tounsfs first in- 

From Xew Knglaiidj tlic adjacent States, and 
Canadix, excursionists for Florida should make Xew 
’^"ork city their common point of departure* In 
that city all tlic grenit mil way and fitcamsbip lines 
have olhccs, w'bcre full iuformutioii may be got; 
and tickets bon;xht not only fur Fernandina or Jack- 
sonvillc, but for miiiieroiis otlser points in Interior 

Ocean Routea—Of the water wavs, tlm Mallory 
Stenmsliip Line is an exeiUently appointed one and 


very popular. Four firstKjhvs-s titi'niricni ply ln'tw’iN n 
^ow York and Fernaiidina^ Fltirida, leuving Now 
York every Friday* Tliosc ijitoiiiiiorti art.! Jar^, ftafe, 
and coinforUldOj liuilt of inm, tlirec tiioiiKriiui 
tons eapiU'ity oadi, with deep clmuglit and full 

Clyde’s New York, Charlet^toiu ^lul Florhia 
Steamship LinCj New York, hiis four tirst-tdass 
steamers^ two ftoing to Fermmdina and two dirt^cl 
to JackHoiiville; all of tliein ^'euendly stopping m 
nmU at ('liarlestou* They leave New York on 
Tuesdays and Friduvs* 

The Oeean Steamship Company liave a full out¬ 
fit of steamers sailing regnUrly fr<mi Boston, New 
York, and f^hiladelphia, to Savannah, whore they 
connect with the Savannah, I’loridiU and \\’'esteni 
Railway—the Waveross Short Lino, wliich loads to 
Jacksonville. These vosseU are large, couvonient, 
safe, and first class in every way* They sail from 
New York three titnos a week, and from Ihkston 


on Thursdays. 

Overland Eoutca--* Railway travel fuel lit ic^ a no 
exceptionally fine. The Atlantic (’ose^t Line is the 
shortest one fnmi the East and North to Florida* 
The line rtins three express trains daily each wav, 
tlie time between New York and Jacksonville Ik*- 



inp: lihmit tliirty mi<\ by exprass trEiin less 

tliari twenty-four. 

In mUiitujti to these nira facilities of speed and 
frequency, tliis line Inis during tlie present year 
taken fioirio iniportant steps in iidvmice of ordinary 
travel. The recent Viist increase of pleasure-travel 
lias produeeil two eoineident results—tine liotels in 
Florida and suniptiioiiH uioans of (ravel to tlie State. 
The ii<le of fiusli inn aide tfjuring and resort-socking 
BnuthwanJ Iieus set iu within the past yciirortwo; 
and tljo lieaUh and pIciLsure resorts liavo been made 
to meet the dcnniuds of that ehise. Tlio siiTniucr 
rewrtg of Newport, Sanit<^ga, Bar llarhor, Bong 
Bmnch, and dape May are beginning to reapiiear 
svitli lit least some of their features aii<l hahltues at 
St, Augustine, Pablo Beaeli, Uock Ledge, Tampa, 
4 arjiiin Springs, and Key Wast, as winter resorts in 
Florida. Iii response to tlie iTierease of ibis class 
of travel of late, the Atlantic Coast Line Inn^ put on 
rt‘gularly riiniiing Pullman vestihiilud trains be¬ 
tween Boston and Jacksonville. These tniins con¬ 
sist exclusively of drawing-room ears, containing 
cicli a lilmiry, reading-room, smoking-room, dining- 
cars, and sice(nng-cal's. The cars of these tndns are 
so coimeeted hv means of vestibules that each train 
is practically one eontinuoiis caij with the conven- 

ienccs of a wcll orikn^tl lioteL Tlic tniins tliroiigb- 
oiit are lighted with ek-ctric iightii depending fj>:nn 
tlie ceiliiigy. Th<! trjivcler on thcssc trains may 
1ireakf!\8t in New York one dav and dine in pkick- 
sonville t1iu next. 

Tilt! Piedmont Air-Line has its advantages as an 
alkrad rente between the Nortli and tlie hiontb. It 
rims double daily trains, with Pullman bnfet and 
Miinn boudoir eats, between Atlanta and Jaekstm- 
viltoj making regnlar atid close cimnections at At¬ 
lanta with Nnrtliem treins. The route from the 
>rortIi lies flirongh the great battle-fidds of Yir- 
fdnia, the Shenimdoah Valiev, the beautifni broken 
rellinii country the Piediiiotit region, udiieh pre- 
seiits some of the tinest landscape scenery in Amer¬ 
ica* I’his conneets also with tlic Kast Tennessee, 
Virginia, and Guoigia systems of railway. 

CIncimiali is the starting-point from the North¬ 
west region of St, Paid, Cliiciigo, and Indianapolis ; 
ami from tlsat |ioint there rim tlirongh skeping- 
Ciirs and double daily trains of the (diieinnati 
Southern Ptailway and of the East TentiesHee, A"ir- 
girila and Georgia liidlroad, coiinectijig with the 
Savanna]), Florida and Vestei'n Hail way to blorida, 
making the time between Cineiiiniiti and Jackson¬ 
ville otily twenty-eight hours. 



Hl h a iit fitartliiff-poiiit from flie great 

Ntjrth-North west, embracing Kanssts, Nebiuska, 
Iowa, Miniicafjta, Dakota, Ort^gon, anrl tlio Turrito- 
ricH tlierealioiit From tljat point the [jj'jisville and 
Narthville Kail way rims two trains a day, parsing 
throiigli the iTmiiiitaiinregunie of TeurieSiiec and 
Alal>uma, and eoriueeti^ by way of l^cnsaeola, with 
tlie I^'Iorida lisulwiiy and Navigation Cornpanj’e 
road, parsing tlinnigh Tallaha^seo and tlie great 
tohtieeo and cotton region of Florida, 

New Orleans ih the startirig-puiiit for tlie South¬ 
west Mexico, Ouliforniai Texa.s, Arkansas, l/ijuisi- 
ana, and ^lissisHijyjii. There the traveler may take 
the Loidsville and Nasliville Kail wav, to River 
Jiinetion on the (Ihattalioocliec iMver; thence, by the 
Savannah, FUnhhi and Western Kadwa}", throiigii 
Thoinusville and Waveross: or bv" the Florida Rail- 
way or Short Line, which passes sevend twints of 
interi'st—^tho Ohistcc hattle-groniul, the Suwannee 
River, and other attractive scenery in W'estern and 
M iddle FlonMa, 

Jacksonville,—Having readied this travel-cen¬ 
ter, the metropolis of the State, whether by rail or 
water, the tourist will pause to consider the outgo¬ 
ing coTiveynnccs from this point. 

Jacksonville itself is altogetlier familiar to the 



readiDg piiliHe, -md on tliat acconiit ncedt^ but brief 
[iieoHou liere. It lias a population of "25,000, 
and is both progrcfsi\'e ai!d aggressive ; Inu all the 
Jinxieni applianoes of comfort — tine hotfJs and 
many of tlietii, gas and electric lights, telegraph 
and tcle|ilioiie, daily uewtipapei^, street eai^, etc. 
T!ie settlemetit was originally known by ihs abo¬ 
riginal name, Wacea Pilatka, wbieb nioans Cow's 
C rosei ng-ov er—C'o wford—() x foixl —B osporus ; I mt. 
it bei'ame a whiteinan’s town in 1S1(>, and in IS’22 
received its present luune in honor of Andrew 
Jaek6<nn It U largely a Nortliem city in its spirit 
and Tiictliods; at least not essentisilly Soutlierti in 
any eliaraetci istlc sense* 

The city has recently Iwcoine rt^presentative of 
the State of riortda, by the establishment of the 
Snbtropical ExpositioTi, a permanent institution, 
tlicrt^. It is to lie kept open every winter season, 
and is to cxhililt tlic jiroducts and resources of 
Florida and the most vakiuble and attractive exliib- 
its that can be obtained from the Pahamai^, West 
Irulies, ^Mexico, imd South America, Sueli an ex- 
piisitioii is new in tlic I’uited States, and, when it 
is fully organised and equipped as designed, will be 
without a rival hi the world. The intention is to 
increase its scope, variety, and quality every year. 

Tin: f 'unniiA or to-oav. 


woro oininuiitiv successful, 
iiihl prove tlu' entifV' fcusiUilitv of tlie gencml idea* 
l?y lliis uicnns the \ ijJitcu' to Jacksonville is, in n 
vviiv, a visifitr to i;ill parts of the State. Suitable 


l)iiildin^ were erected, and these must he extended 
from vear to yoiir* The iriaiii Iniildiiifj is three 

4.' V 

hundred and twentydire feet six inches in Icit^tli, 
including towers—tw^enty feet—at the front end. 
Its widt.l^, inchiding the towers or minarets—twen¬ 
ty feet—is one Ijrmdred and tifty-two feet En¬ 
gine, dynamos, and other machinery are providecL 
An annex, of sixty-four hy eighty-eight feet, two 
stories high, is for an art-gallery, restaunint, and 
other suppletory coin partmcuts. 

(tenimne to the spirit, aim, and final eansc of 
the Subtropical lixpositlou, h the Florida fnimigra- 
tiou Association, with headquarters at Jacktkmville, 
This Association, representing all parts of the State, 
in the same way that the Exposition will nltiinately 
do, wu£ organized for the purpose of furnishing full, 
autlieutic, and trnstwortliy inforuiation to tliose that 
are looking towatxl tlie State with conditicuial view 
to making a homo thero. To carry out this ohject 
tlierc has l>ccn establislied sit flacksonvine n general 
agency for the piirj>f>se of inviting correspondence. 
Prompt attention will he given to iiu[iiines rekiting 
to any section, locality, or feature of the State, It 
is the j>ur|)ose of this Association to deal only in 
facte, and to avoid exaggerated praUe, which iiltj' 
mutely docs the State more harm than unjust de* 



traction^ Tlit? frencral agent b E, R. V"an Denian, 
rlackHOTiville, Florida, 

From Jacksonville, — There are four general 
diiections Ijv railway from Jacksonville; one veest- 

V V 

ward, reaching Pensacola; one sonthweetwurd, 
reaching CJedar Keys; one Boiithward, rcaeiiing 
Piiiita Gorda on Charlotte Harbor in tlic Gulf of 
jMoxieo; and two south ward, reaching St. Augus¬ 
tine on the Atlantic coast and Titnsville sit the liead 
of Indian River, Th&se routes are controlled by 
five companies. Seven yesirs ago there were 537 
miles of railroad in the State, wliereas hMlay theixj 
sire 2,180 miles. 

The live eompanies arc—the Florida Railway 
and Xsivigation Company, extending westward 200 
mi lea to the ApiKdadiicoIa River and to Cedar Keys, 
and stuitliwiiixl to the W'ilhhicoochee River, Tavaivs, 
etc,; the Phmt System, wliieli reaches ijouthward to 
Tampa and Puuta Gorda; the Jacksonville, Tsinn>a, 
and Key West Railway, which extends to Sanford, 
Tavares, Titusville, on Indian River, St. Augustine, 
and I)e J^iiid j tlje Florida Soutliern 1’ailway, from 
Palatka to Drooksville and Pemberton Ferry; and 
tbe St. Augustine and Palatka Railroad, eonncctiiig 
St. Angusthic with Tocoi and Palatka, Jacksonville, 
May port, and Pablo Beacli, Pensacola with Mill- 



view, Blue Springs on the St. John's with Hills^ 
bon>ugh on tlie Atlantiuj and iloiiroe with TiLqjoii 

The steamboat liiie^De Dary and People*!? 
Line—from Jacksonville up the Sn Joliii's Kiver to 
Sanford and Enterprise, runs j^assenger-baits every 
day except Saturday, 

From Jacksonville, accordingly, the traveler can 
readily reach any ]>oint of interact, and these 
abound in all directions* 

Excui'sioris of a few hour^ may be made 

L Pahla Beach, sixteen miles from Jackson¬ 
ville by rail* It is a sea-side resort of growing 
popularity, on the Atlantic shore, eight miles south 
of the month of the St. John^s Kiver. The beach 
at this point is one of tlic hiicst on the Atlantic 
coast, being straight, sandy, Bhclving gently, smooth, 
and free from rocks and pit lioles. The bathing is 
perfectly safe* A handsome but irregiihir little 
town has sprung up within the last few years, hav¬ 
ing now a t)M-clai?s hotel knoAvii as Miirniv HalL 
with pavilions, restaurants, and other conveniences 
and coinfoits—^an establishment as tine as any mi 
the Atlantic coast, not snrpassetl at Long Branch, 
Ocean (drove, or Ciijie ^lay. 




2. 6V. Anfjmiin^\ the oldest city iu the United 
States, i& thirty-six miles by rail fi'oin Jacksonville. 
The city—^population, about 8,500“is Tiotcd for its 
picturesque beauty; its crumbling old city gates; 
its otld stj’ects, ten to twenty feet wide, without 
sidewalks ; its coquina built houses; it^ overhanging 
l)aleouies, with a scent of days gone by over all; its 
goveruor^'s palace; ite unique sea-wall; the hoary 
raruparts of its yeardadeii San ^tarco; its mcdi[evab 
looking ^loorisli cathedral; and the finest and most 
striking hotel in the world. 

Lady Hardy, in her adnnmhle hook of travels, 
Down Soutii,” a few years ago, of this gaudily 
solemn old city felieitous’y writes: “It is like an 
old-fashioned beauty who has been lying in state 
through these long years, pranked iii all her finery 
of feathei's, furbelows, paint, powder, and patches, 
and now wakes up and walks and talks with us in 
the quaint, stilted phraseology of oM days.’’ 

There is not a step nor a tuni in this grand old 
ruin of other da vs that is not interesting. The very 
ocean seems to roll in an antique sort of a way; and 
the trade-winds that swee]> thr<mgh the picturesque 
date-palms, magnolias, and oleanders, seem to be 
whLsperiug in Spanish, or howling in the Cautio 
vernacular spoken there four centuries ago. 



trTHJIvT 1?^ 



The iiiicicnt San >[are(> is Fort Clarion, h 
was be^un proliably in 15i)5, am] is like tlie pyra¬ 
mids of Egypt in being the work of slaves; and it 
is a most interesting fossil of a foreign eiviliiiation, 
restored by numerous later touches* The moat is 
now dried up and overgrown; but tliere are still 
tlie drawbridges^ the massive amlied eiitmnce, the 
gniy barbacaii, the dark under-ways, the sullen 
bastions, and the crypt-like dungeons* The princely 
liotel recently built, the Ponce de Leon, lias an 
annex or &np])lenientary lionse, the Aleaiiar; and the 
two, a magniticent unit, unite the old and tlie new, 
tlie pii-st and tlie jiresent, with wonderful splendor 
and eliccb The Alcazar is unlinished. The Ponce 
de Leon revives tlie style of three liumired years 
ago, and enriches it witli all the luxuries of to-day* 
It is Iniilt ill the style of the early Sjmnisli Renais¬ 
sance, with its decided flavor of the Moi'csque* 
Tlie material is shell eoiicrete, and the great build¬ 
ing is a stupendous monolith, and was moldedj not 
built* The general complexion is a liglit rnother- 
of-pearl, with hriglit salmon terra-cotta ornainenta^ 
tion* The greatest turret boigbt is a hundred and 
fifty feet. The building is five hundred feet, long 
and covers nearly five acres* A thousand guests 
can be accommodated and seated in tlie dining-room, 

Ti:A vfiL 



rUK FLOnfhA OF TO-])AY. 

and tliia hall is one of tlie marvels of this immense 
establishmeiiL The grand ]>arlor is one hundred and 
four by iifty-tlii'ce feet, but is practically divitied into 
live rooms by arches, jmrtieresj and screens» The 
drawing-rooms on the first door surpass in number 
and style eveiTthing of the kind ever pi'csonted to 
the public, iteides all these there are splendid 
courts, fountains, lakes, tennis-courts, bowling-alleys, 
hai's, billiard-rooms, bazaars, and arcades; but more 
sumptuous than all are the luxurious Roman, Turk¬ 
ish, and Russian batlis* From these access is had 
to the unrivaled plunge-baths of sea^water, covering 
nearly ludf an acre of varying depths from two to 
six feet. Rack of these is tlie &ea-bath proper 
wliieh may he deseribcd us a stupendous cave of 
solid concrete, one hundred and eighty-four feet hy 
eiglitv-four feet, and fmin four to thirty feet deep, 
altogether making a bath without a preecdent in all 
history. The electric ligliting of the building is 
something pbetiomeiiiil, and is in keeping witlj the 
splLMidor of the whole. The outlay for this coim 
pletcd luiiin building—the Ponce do Leon projHjr— 
is reported a.s two and a half milliori dollars; and 
the Alcazar, it is predicted, will equal the other in 
both splcjjdor and cost. During the past season, 
this immense hotel was crowded for full two 

tj:a vfl 

iTiontliii, a tlioiisiiiul giiL\sts frequently; tlie 

gross iucoiiie being sUited at over five llniusand 
clonal's a dav. 

There are at St. Augustiiie yet other fine hotels 
—tbe new ILotci Cordova, as unique and in 
respects as fine and as well appointetl as Hotel; 
tiie San Marco, the Magnolia, the St. Augustine, 
and half a do^on minor houses, 

Ih George Idand^ at the month of the St. 
Jolni’s, has tine tropical scenery, eharroing walks 
and drives, and a good hotel, 

-i, Mayport^ on the soutli side of tlie mouth of 
the St. John’s, is a pleasant iittle h)wn of j)erhaiis a 
hundred cottages, many of these being summer 
residcncea for business men in Jacksonville, The 
St. John’s '^vas called May by the French, and 
tlience the name of May port. Already popular as 
an excursion resort, it is growing in popularity, 

5, Besides the above there are, within cjtsy 
excursion distance of Jacksonvillc, Orange Park^ 
Alaadarhi^ Magnolia^ Grem Care Sprtngx^ and 
scores of others on the St, John’s, all having iiotols, 
and all their special charms, Tlic St, Joiin’s region 
is too well known to need a word at this late day. 
Longer excursions from Jacksonville be in all 
directions southward and westward ; 



L Jje^iiuiing with tlie G^i coast, the touriist 
may make Indian River liis objective jioliiL This 
region eii joyg a glorious cliiiiatej lass variable than 
the interior and west, lisis tine rieii semi-tropical 
scenery, and grows beyond doubt tlie Hnest omngcs 
in tbe world. From Jacksonville tlie tinvoler niay 
go by rail direct to Indian River at Titusville^ liiO 
miles, a town readied by telegraph and express. 
From tliat point ho may make tbe entire tour of 
tins famous sound, called by universal eonseut a 
river—known to tbe Spaniards as tbe (PAu— 
from Titusville near tlie head, to Jupiter at the 
soutbern extremity, a distance of 118 miles, by 
steamer all the way. One line of steamers leave 


Titusville daily, passing Ledge^ with its first- 

class hotel, line scenery, with excellent hunting and 
fishing; Kau OulUe^ with iU past-ofticc, store, and 
liotel, with several rasidences, and its State Agri¬ 
cultural Oollegc huilding, a nionument of recon¬ 
struction sham and of Gleason ; down to Alelhounuu 
31) miles from Titusville, where tlie flora begins to 
show increase of tropical elements; and where there 
is a thriving settlement, largely English, with two 
hotels, a newspaper, and no end of rod and gun 
sport. From j\Ielbouriie to Jupiter, 09 miles, 
there plies a steamer three times a week, passing 

Looking ArKi>t$ij Ih'iitAK Ilivtii 

A ^ 

/ r-' 

yd run FLORIDA OF TO-nA Y. 

The witli iU acres and isliiiids of oysters; 

St. ZmV, ’With its long-fumed limiting-grounds and 
its Hocks of manatees; Kdrn^ witli its famous pine¬ 
apple fields and Hue fishing; on to J^qyiter hdet^ 
tiie present end of tJie tclegrupli line, with its 
lighthouse 170 feet higln Here the tourist is deti- 
nitcly within the subtropics; and a handsome, 
well-grown eoeoanuMrec 10 Flora's conspicuous 
of a new edimate. 

Only a few names of places have been men¬ 
tioned in this tninsit from Titusville to Jupiter; 
but there are more than a score of delightful places, 
with each a hotel and a post-otlice. The fhnu and 
fauna gi*aduully pass from the semi-tropical to the 
suhtro]ncal as the traveler goes southward. The 
ottemperinfr breath of the Gulf Stream becomes 
more and more operative until the traveler reaches 
Jii[jiter, where the Stream fii'st separates from the 
land in it^^ course northward* 

2* Or, the traveler may make Lake Worth his ol>- 
jectivo point* He would then, as before, go from 
Jacksonville by rail to Titusville, 100 miles; from 
Titusville to Jupiter by steamer, ItS miles; from 
Jupiter hy hack to Lake Worth, S miles* Once on 
the lake—wliieli, like Indian Ttiver, was originally a 
sound—he can go to any point in boat, citlier row, 

8:iil^ nr ; nia^tlv J-ikc WnrtU la 23 inilei! 

loii", aliout Ji mile wide, mid separated fr<»jn the 
Atlantic bv a narrow stri[) of laud in pome places 
less than n ^pmrternf a mile wide. An inlet near 
the iiortliern end of tlic lake connects it \xdth the 
Atlatilie. The water of llie lake is less wdt than 
that of the ocean, bv K'asnn of nmneruus email 
ST reams and a ^eiici'al eecj>a^e from the fresh-water 
lakes above to the ^vestirard. The fresh-wator hikes 
are aljont a nitle west of Lake ^Vortii; so that the 
fishermuTi finds tliree kinds of water in less than 
three miles—the ocean, the eenii salt lake, and the 
fresh lakes—with their sevci-al families of fishes. 
l>eei\ tnr]<eys, ducks, and small ^me of various 
kinds are ahnndant; as indeed they are ahiiost the 
entire leiii^th of the Atlantic coast, but tispecialiy 
alnmdaiit in the more ncwlv settled localities. The 
llamiii^o, a distinctly tropiend bird, has been seen as 
far north as this lake. The eocoannt-palui grows 
and fruits here, wliile it is a very uncertain growth 
iinywlierc north of this* The trojiical fruits that 
esm be groM ii north of this region, can be grown 
here williont protection, 

3, Or the tourist may make Biscayne Bay, about 
hixtv miles south of Luke Worth, his objective 
point* To this Ijcautlful region there are two 

92 TJlh: FLOniDA OF Tf)^njT. 

routes^, dtie is, as above, from Jacksonville to Titiiir 
villc, to Jupiter, to Lake Wortli ; and there charter 
a l)oat Eind sail down the A thin tie coast, from the 
Jiead of Lake AVortli to Miami, the county-seat of 
Dade CoiiTitv, 84 miles* Lroin Miami to Xev AVest 

A ILv^iioch, 

riLi VKL. ji;l 

the flistiince is 130 miles. Tlie other ruiito to tlie 
Biscaviie ix'gioD is^ to go south down the other suIg 
of the State—that from Jacksonville to Pnnta 

Gorcla Lv rail, to Key West by steamer or sail, to 
Aliaiui by sail. Tins ^Miaml region hai? the usual 
Atlantic coast variety of soils—pine, lianimock, and 
prairie —* with the Everglades lyiiig west of it. 
Here, in tlie iitart of the subtropics, the visitor 
sees in the tloi'a the dilfereuce between semi-tropic 
and subtropic, Tlio guava, for exatn}ilc, which 
grows BOiuetimcs as far np as 30*—and land agents 
ill that latitude advertise the guava as one of their 
attraidions—the guava, here in Subtriipical Florida, 
glows to he a tree twenty or even thirty feet liigh, 
with a delicious and ahmidant fruit, while in the 
higher latitudes it is a shrub aljoiit as tall as a man, 
witli a dwarfed fruit, that is hardly fit to eat at all. 
So also with the lime; and, indeed, with all the 
rarer and more tender fruits. Fisliiiig and limiting 
botli have here the best of tields. The (iiilf Streani 
brings into these waters the whole family of tropi¬ 
cal fishes, and carries the same up as far norlli as 
Jupiter Inlet. As to climate, tlii.s is, especially the 
northern portion of it, doubtless the most equable 
in the State; and that, of course, means in the 
United States* The equability appears to be jiretty 



uniform from Cape Florida to Jii}nter Inlet—^the 
region iouchetlhs the (hilf Stream—-and from Jupi¬ 
ter Inlet to Ferniiiidina tlie criuability gradually de- 
creages; but the entire Atlantic coast has less vana^ 
tion of temperature tliaii otlier parts of the State. 

4. Lake Okeechobee and tlie Everglades arc best 
reached from Jacksonville hy rail to Kissimmee m 
Osceola CountV, and thence 1)V heat throiisHi the 
lakes and down tlio Ki-ssiiniuee River into Okcecho- 
heo. A eecond route hy rail to Punta Oorda, 
and thence hy boat; up the Caloosahatcliee Rivei\ 
into Okeechobce^a lalcc of about a tliousand square 
miles in area, being about forty by twenty-five 
miles. The river and lake travel in these routes is 
not generjtlly so deliglitful in itself as a vestibuled 
car; but hb a pienicj pleasant and refreshing. 

5. Key West is in ^Monroe County, on an island 
of jlic name of the ojty, of about twelve square 
miles. It is a Spanish-lookiug town of nearly 
20^000 inliabitants, is Hglited with gas, runs streeC 
cajv, and is reached by telegraph. It is a quaint 
iitkI antiquely novel city, full of oddities and va* 
riety. Jlr, IJeiisball says its Imiklings are of all 
siKes and of every conceivable style, or no style, 
of architecture; and tliey are promiscuously jumhled 
together, hut ai^e joijied or seamed to caeh other by 


a wealtli and profusion of tropical foliage, wlilcli 
eurroimdSj invests^ Gunnoiiuti^j ami overvhadiovH 
tlieni, softening tlic asperities, toning d<>wn tUe 
hin*^!! oiitlineSj and iinitmg tlie separate pk^t.^, 
which merge their individuality in a hariiionuiiis 
iont emernhle, Tiiat writer sums up Key West's 
licterogeneous attractions in these wonls: ‘“And so, 
mansions, Imts, and Jiovels, balconies, canopies, and 
porches, gables, lioods, atid t)avilions, pillan^, 
cohiinus, and pilaster^?, are mingled in endless eon^ 
fusion, but harmonized liy amljesrpies of fiiiit and 
foliage, festoons <jf vines and creepers, wrenths and 
traceries of diinhing shrubs and trailing flowei*s, 
and shady bowers of palm and palmetto, almond 
and tamarind, lime and lemon, orange and banana/’ 
Tiie population is mainly Cubans and (^onchs, but 
tliere are also Englislimen, Fmnehmeti, Germans, 
Spaniards, Italians, negroes, and Americans. Kng- 
lisli immigrants from the Baliamas are ('ailed 
(onelis, and settlers from the Gnited States are 
called Americans, Tbc island is rieU in tropiral 
beauties and fruits; and the city is noted for its 
unique and picturesque featim's, Spanish tone, uiid 
cigar manufactures. In this one industry it employs 
over three tliou&md operatives, and handles !ive 
null ion dollars a year. It can be reached, as alxjve 


Btatcfl, from Jat-kHonvillc by rail to Cedar Keye^ 
Taiiijia, or Pnnta Uorda; and fn>ni eitiicr of tliese 
jmintif by steiunur to Key ^\" direct. Or, on titc 
other Pidc of the peiiin&iihu from dackponville by 
rail to Titusville, tljence by steamer to Jupiter 
Inlet, tliencc down the coast by Ijikc ’Worth to 
iMianil in Dade County, and tliencc one Imiidrod 
and tliirty tnikis, by scluxmer, to Kev West* 

C» Cape Sable and the entiixi Houtliern eoiist of 
Lee, Monroe, and Dade fVninties are well worthy a 
visit* Here the subtropical sojiiethnes tijreateiis to 
iMKmine llie tropicah Cocoa nut gro\*es are here and 
tlioro, iind the royal palm is to he found licre, the 
only place in the whole cmnitrv* d’he tiniriKL in 

V M i> 7 

a pamdisc of Nature, may select any one of a 
score oi atti'active points for his visit and teinpo- 
rary sojourn* Around tlio coast runs a hoi'se- 
shcjo of fertile land, not Juativ miles wide at any 
[>laE?e, and l>acketl by tlie Kverfflades, wldeli center 
in the gt'oat Okeeclioheo* That, part of this horse¬ 
shoe attemiRM'ed by the Culf Stream, tlie part 
toward tlie east on the Atlantic side^ is especially 
atiractjve* All this region can be readied readily 
bv wdioimer or other boat fmiti either Kev West 
or Mianii; and such boats are on !iand all the time, 
e.spoeially at Key M esL 

TtiA VKL. }i7 


i, Tampa, some 210 miles from Jaekf?OTiville l>y 
rail direct^ is a tjpieal Florida citv, of nearly 2,000 
inliabitauts. It is mtcrestinpf for its history, scenery, 
oranges, fish, and mounds. It is readied by tele¬ 
graph and express. One writer claims that Tamjia 
is prohiiblj older than St. Augustine, and explains 
that, in tlie same vear that Menendea founded tlie 
latter city, his deputy, De Keinoro, was in charge 
of Tampa. Meneiidez sent a hundred laborers, in* 
diiding fifteen women, to Tampa to teach spinning 
to the squaws. Padre Rogel, a Catholic priest, 
wju? in charge of ecclesiastical interests at that 
time, and the foilowiiig year Menendu/, made a 
Sj?ani^/i. jicnce between tlie I'ago and tlic Tampa 
tribes at Tocobavo. But no reeoj-ds of tliat liisi- 
tory app'jar to have come down to this day. It 
was in Tani]>a Bay that General Worth persuaded 
Coacoochec to go West with his tribe, Jis narrated 
elsewhere in these piigcs. It is a few miles fouth 
of this city that a very large and old orange-tree 
was said to be still iiviuu that had home over ten 
thousand oranges in one year. 

S. Tallahassee, the capital of tlie State, m an 
ideal Florida eitv, and one of die loveliest in the 
South : and a most charming cotnmunity, homo 
geneous, liospitahk, and essentially Southern. It 



lias a population of ncaily 3,000; Las DxceilcTit 
hotels, telcgrapli, express, iec-f actorv', arjcl is reached 
hy rail direct^ 1G5 miles from Jacksons jilc. It is 
tfie eetiter, too, of many attract!s'e points to visit 
—fiistorical liomesteads, laudsciipes, lakes, and so 
on. 'J’wo mllus from Taltaliassee stands Bellevue, 
the Miinit lioniestead, which wits oecnpied by the 
svidow of Muraf, tlie marslial ajiil King of Xaples. 
Tiic prince sjient the last jears of his life upon his 
estate in JelFerson Coiintv. He and his widoss" 


svfio survived him many yeai's lie side by side in 
the Epiiicop;d Cemetery at Tallahiissee, with quid lit 
and inttfresting inscriptions over the graves. 

iS'ear by, too, is the site of the old kSpanish Fort 
St. Liiis^ with notewortliy fnigmeuts of ponderous 
hilt decaying remains. 

D. Cedar Keya is hy railway direct J2T ndles 
fmm Jacksonville. It is on Way Key in the (jiilf 
of Mexico, f()nr miles from the nmiuland, It has 
three or hnir thousand inljahitants, tavo new'H- 
papers, two g^:)od hotels, a telegraph-ofiice, and an 
cxprcss-otliec. It is a port of entry, and has 
shipped as imicli as §(>95,000 worth of exports a 
year, [wincipally lumher, hsh, green turtle, and 
oysters. Iiufjorts, about 85,000. A regular Imc of 
stGaniers plv between this port and the West In- 


dies. Tlie Eagle and tlio Fubcr Fencil Companies 
liave liere each a factory for preparing the cedar- 
wood for lead-pencils. It is a line field for all 
kinds of fishing, 

10. Penaaeola, 320 miles by rail frmii Jackson¬ 
ville, 101 miles west of TallabiUSBee, was founded by 
the Spaniards in 1000, and has bud an eventful and 
checkered history. The liarhor is described as one 
of the finest in the worM, liaving an area of about 
two hundred square miles, is tldrty miles long, with 
au averat^e ividth of at least seven miles and a depth 
of f roll I thirty to thirty-five feet of water. The 
entrance is half a mile wide, with twenty-four feet 
of Wider. There are immense quantities of lumber 
and fish si lipped, also some coal from Alabama, 
There are several newspai>ers, churches, and hotels; 
a fine opera house, an express-office, a telegraph- 
office, and all tlie eonvenieiices of a well-appointed 
city. In tliat region are the Pensacola Navy-’V ard 
and the Liglithouse, Port Parraneas, Fort J’ick- 
ens, and Bayou Grande, Pensacola is a rapidly 
progressive place, and one having many attract¬ 
ive features for both the sight seer and the home- 
seeker. Its climate is ail that could he desimh 
having all the advantages of the Korth Florida 
tier of counties. 



11. Appalachicola lias irianv points of attraction. 
It is about 210 miles Ijy rail from Jacksonville. and 

n' * 

luis Roinc 2j000 jnlif'ibitants. It is an important 
lumber])ort, and sends out also oysters^ sponges, 
and fislu It lias one newspaper, gocal liotcis, and 
an attractive mtoura^je. 

12. Wakalla Springs, sixteen iiiilcs from Talla- 

hassee, m the source of tlie Wakulla Ttivcr. It is 

nearly circular, four linndrcd feet wide aud a liuu- 

dred iiinl six feet deep, brightly clear, green of 

iiiiiny sbadcfi, and inteiiHoIy interesting* The river 

that flows fro til it is two Iniiidred and iiftv feet 


wide at the outset, and deep eiiougb to bear large 
vessels. This spring is in SEune respects more 
remarkable than the famous Silver Siiring in 
Marion (kimitv, 


13. Silver Spring.—This plienomeiial body of 
water is in Marion County, and is now aeecssible by 
rail, and enjoys the advantages of telegraph and ex- It is iK!sei'il>ed as a vitst eirciilar basin, sis 
hundred feet in diameter and nearly fifty feet ill 
deplli; irt the soiiree of a river known as Silver 
Spring Run, navigable for Kinall steamers, and 
wbicli flows intEj the Ocklawalia River, about nine 
miles distauL Notwitli stun ding its great depth, the 
water is so clear that the smallest object—a nickel 


rnA vi^L 

or a nail, for cxiiinj)le—can be ^een on tlic bottom. 
The pliicc can be reached by mil direct, or Ijy rail 
from Jackr.onville to Palatka, and tlience by lioat 
up the Ockbwaha River to yilver iSprhig Kurn 
TIjIb and the Wakulla SpnngB arc beyond doubt the 
most wonderful tbingfi of their kind in tlic workb 

An excellent route for tbe tourist in quest of 
chameterlstie Semi-tropical Florida scenery is this: 
Take tbe day-boat np the St. Jfdiri’s River to San¬ 
ford ; thence by rail to Orlando, through the lake 
region of Oiaiige Cloiinfy, VPi Tavares and Lees¬ 
burg on Lake Hams; tlience down tJie Ocklawaha 
River by Steamer to Silver Springs and thence 
down tlie river ag;iin to Palatka, and on to Jack- 

14. The Ocklawaha River is comparatively little 
visited, hut is richly worthy a special visit For 
the river alone, a good plan would be to go to Lees¬ 
burg by rail, niid tlience take river-steaiiier to Pa¬ 
latka, taking in Silver Spring as ]iart of the ronte. 
The Ocklawaha is perhaps the most meandering of 
all Florida’s serpentine streamn, and they are many. 
It hows, in its winding way, through cypress low¬ 
lands not elsewliere equaled in their wild and 
tangled luxuriance. The etately stems of these 
ti'ees rise sometimes sixty or seventy feet without a 

TUi; bU^RiUA OF TO hA^ 







kimt or a bend* and thev eeeiu to be a,s niucli as 
four feet in diiniietcr in rouic instanees, TIic night 
trip on tlicst? b<jats is especially striking i the glar¬ 
ing head liglits, the deep ainl uliirling shadows^ the 
confused glimpses of gloom and grandeur, the pol¬ 
ing the grounded boat otf sliore, the muque signals 
and shoutings of the crew, the night cries of startled 
birds and beasts—all tliese things, wiried every min¬ 
ute or two, make up an experience to l>c found no¬ 
where elsLS probably, lu the world. 

15. The Suwannee Elver—known in classic negro 

iniiistrelsv as de rdd/c /'—is fhll of interest 


for its scenery. It is of casj'' access from Jackson¬ 
ville by mil direct 

1 n. The Caloosahatchee River is one of tlie mast 
striking In tlie State* The canal that connects it 
witli Okeechaliee Tjiikc adds to its interest, and 
makes it the outlet of the lake to the (iidf of Mex¬ 
ico. It is the only river of any eonsidemble size in 
the Subtropics. Its fiom is s]5cdally rich and at¬ 
tractive* Trojucal trees appear—and sc mid topical 
trees atntin greater size than tliey do fartlier north* 
C’oeoannt-palms thirty years old arc to he seen here* 
For thirty-five miles from its month tliis river has 
a depth of eight feet, and a width generally of a 
mile* The banks are covered with thick set tropi- 


cjil veg<!Utioii: oak-ti'ces with long moss 

anti Eiir-|)lantHi, ])iilinettoeg of ^^everal kitids^ and 
tMiigltsd mangroves* Now, that tlic canal leads 
into tlie lake, feteaTnern ]nav OTiter tbe river at its 
niontli ami I'eat'li Kissimmee in Osceola County, 
8t>me 4<Ki nnles. At the inoiitli of the Caloosa- 
liatchee Is I'nnta I flie great tinnsfer sliipplng 
point for Key West, which lies IfiO miles soatliward* 
(’attic fur tlie hiuutliern marketB, inuinly Key West, 
lias been the great (export from Puiita Rassa. The 
(’alnosaltatchee Valley has a history too. Bloody 

w^n'k W!is done there In Bcminole-war davt?, Forts 


mark eentcj's of military operations* Fort Mycrftj 
with itrt fiiirroiiiniing town, stands funspictiotis^ 
Mounds point hack to prcdiistoric thnea and to a 
liifltory before the Seminole disgraced Immanity and 
licforc Do Leon and the other swaggering/I 
fiif/as !ia<l <liscovere(l and this Flowery 

j,aink A disiingnislied veteran traveler, after 1 lav¬ 
ing seen all jiarts of Florida, said of this beautiful 
valley that, if he were a young man begirming life, 
it is hei't^ that lie would settle and iiuiko his lioiue. 
A higher complinieTit than this it w'oiild be difflcnlt 
to ]iay any one place where attractive places abound, 
17. The Homosaasa Biver is midway between the 
suhtropical Caloosiilmtchee and the inhiBtrel-famed 

TRA VEL 105 

Suwannee lu Jloral and elirnatic feature.^. Tiie&e 
foatiire^ are doubtlcs? equally beautiful and iuterest- 
ing^ in their tliree sevemi way*); and in this sense 
it is idle to make marked discriminations in earn par* 
ing the sepaiate aft!actions of ;i State beautiful 
from end to end. 

IS. Hesidcs and beyond all tliCie and ocores of 
places of equal interest, there are yet other scores 
each one of which is known to a select circle as the 
finest spot in Florida—tlie Eden of gar(lon-8pot&^— 
tlie one Paradise of the eaitli—the nonesuch and 
only original heaven an eai'tli—and so on. And 
most of them are very lovely and attractive places. 
The land-sharks and the y?aper-towii men, with tlie 
j'rofei^sional boomers, have exhausted the vocabulary 
of cominendation and bankrupted the dictionary in 
laudations over their moss* cove red gal I-berry swamps 
and desolate third-i-ate wet pine^ban'ciis, until the 
eonscieutioiis chronicler of sober truth fears to tell 
wliat he knows to be true of scores of fiue [daee^s 
all over tliis beautiful land with its giorious but lit¬ 
tle undei'stood auoinalies of Ldiiuatc and its rare san¬ 
atoria] all vantages. 

19. Ifounds.—The excursionist with aiitirpmriau 
proclivitieB will find attractive objects to visit alt 
over the State, in the ancient luounds. There are 



fully tvv'o Imndrod of tlieso. They ni'c of liiany 
fliupeB, and arciw. The sliapc.s iii'c oblong, 

circ^jilar, rectangular, and irregnlsir. The heights 
vary from tlirce to tliirlv feet, with dmiiieters 
from ten feet fo eight InnidreLl feet; and tlie 
areas frrnn a liundred equare fee! to Imlf ;ui acre, 
'l ljoy arc in all jiarts of the State, but are perhaps^ 
riiost ahundaiit on the Gulf coast—Anclote, DiniC” 
<lir 4 I^iuGllas, 1’anipa—but everywdiere» The mate¬ 
rials are mostly shell, sand, and other Hoil:^; some of 
them shellrt ami sands alternating in lavera eight to 
twelve incheft thick. The iifias for which these 
riioumls were hiiiU arc little undci’sfood, various 
theories having been put forth, Some hold that 
they were for liiiid>s ineivly : and the presence of 
liinuan bones in niaiiy of them clearly suggests this; 
but the alisenco of all tnu'cs of siich bones in othei's 
tends to throw doulit on the tondi iheorw The 
skeletons found generally He on the right side, 
ranged radiallv with the liead toward and near the 
center* Otfiers hold that the mounds are palace 
sites for the residence of the sachems and sag.v 
mores, Othei's hint at religion^! uses, saerificial 
altars, and the like. Others reganJ the mounds as 
iiutlonlvs or sentrv^hiwel's for the tribe sentinels on 


guard, U) watch agdiist inviision in canoes. Otliers 

TfiJ VEL inT 

ret niaintnin that the mrnuicl^ are rneriilv acciiinuia- 
tioiisof t>hcl]fi, bones, and soil, brought togellier by 
grand feast-s or coininiiiiistic lioarding-liouses. Spnic 
ciaini to tind evideiiee of cauinbalisni and eremation 
in these bone-piles. Most writers assume that these 
nioiinds are the work of t!ie aborigines found in tiie 
eoiintrv hv the Srsaiiiards; hut the Indians arc saitl 
to claim that tlie nsotinds were there wlien they 
earnc to the eentutry. Tliis, liowever, is worth very 
little as evidence, luthoiigh it is doubtless true of 
tlie Seiniimlee of to-day, Tlie finding of a pair of 
stdssors, fragments of a looking-glass, and gla^^s 
l>eadfi, in one mound, iiidieatea that mme of the 
nioniids at least have no very great anti<|uity. On 
the contrary, however, the presence of old trees on 
the mounds, its large as those of the adjacent forests 
— at Pinellas and Dunedin notably—point to a 
pretty early day and date. Whatever their age, 
use, or origin may be, they are objects of interest, 
and the inquiring mind anxiously awaits revelations 
and develop 111 ents, Tliere are several valimhle pa- 
])crs on these mounds in the Smithsonian Beports 
of some ten years ago. 




Tin: Iiietory of Florida, ite pliysical fcaturetf, aiid 
iU population, are eiugulaily aliko in having ele¬ 
ments that arc exceptionalj many, and diverge. 

Peoples.—Tlie population of tn-day is made up 
of at loai^t four [>ei>i>lcs: the old refiidents, witli 
wlioin the yontlKTii immigrants readily coalesce; 
tlie Northern and foreign immigrants; the ne¬ 
groes; and tlie fndians. 

Old Eesidents,—These, mainly British, lived in 
tlic nortlieni pai^t of tlie State, west of the Sinvau- 
neo Piver. In tliat region, in ante^teUuyn days, 
were large and profitEiblo eottou-plaiitatioiis, stately 
old resideiiees, luxurious lionics; a cultured, well- 
read, refined peoide, proud, self-reliant, selLsup* 
|iorting, courtly, exeludvc in a wav, hut withal lios- 
pitalile, libcml in spirit, religioiiSj conservative, and 
charitable. Slavery — an institution in its main 
features distinctly patriarchal — furnished organ¬ 
ized labor; and wealth, with its ease, leisure, and 



Other adv^antiiges and amoIl^tie^‘, marked a com^ 
iiuitiity of noblemen without rank* The descen¬ 
dants of that day and generation are fo-da}’ the 
rdd residents^ tlie old-timers, the Bourbons of tlie 
t^tate, Witli thesej and in fact of these, is a com* 
muiiitj of earnest and energetic men, lew? wealthy 
and less cnltured, but withal of the same spirit 
and the same civilization, and forming one with 
them in all the essentials of character* The 
cracker may be ilefined as the poor man tliat pre¬ 
fers ease to hardship, content with little, jealous of 
intrusion into his unkempt life, slirewd, narrow, un¬ 
couth, unlettered, homely, conservative. 

These, in short, are the old rcsidents—the 
u'caltliy old-timei's, the yeomanry, and the crack¬ 
ers—all in tlicir seveml ways Southern; and Bour^ 
Itoiis all. 

The immigrants from the old slave States, 
wlierc ii like spirit prevailed and similar classes 
grew up, readily and natumlly blend with tlie 
above, and the two are essentially one. There are 
settlers from every Southern State, and these of 
all the classes and variotics. In 1830 the percent¬ 
age of natives born of all colors was tifty-eight; 
and of Soutliem immigrants, twentymiiie. 

These Soutliern people of Florida look with rn- 



tolligent interest at the incoming tide of inirnigm- 
tion, and welcoitie it lienrtily. They wish to see 
tlie State develo)>ed in that way, AVHiat they may 
resent witli some ardor, and doubtless do often re¬ 
sent, ifl the niiasioiiary spint that seeks to change^ 
askiJig tliein t<i discard the old and adopt the new 
—a tone of inhnite sujierioiity tiiat some jiersons 
use, that ofTends the inherent conservatism that 

marks this people. But the straight-forward man 
tiisit means hiisiuess is always cordially welcomed. 
Northern and Foreign Immigrants,—Tliese classes 
coinprisc a large hody of vinT miEcclhizicous matern 
als. All classes of almost all conntjdcs are repre- 
waited. Tlic Kortliernci^ come fmm every Nortli- 
ern State and Territory except Alaska* Tliere are 
a groat insniy of tliem earnest, industrious, thrifty, 
intelligent, and jirogresslve mem Sonic bring capi¬ 
tal and imjiroved ajiplianecs in the indiistr]e&; some 
bring lirain and brawn only; and some bring the 
worst (jinilities of tlie shariier, the adventurer, and 
the tramp* They are as varied as arc the motives 
that brinsr tliem to this old-new country. ]Vlueh of 
tlie push and energy niul the resultant success of 
tlic State is due to the better of tliese workers* 
Not all the hooinei*fi, blow-liards, and paper-city 
humbugs are imjmrtutions. ^Native Udent lute coin 



tribiited a share of these, Ujxm tlje quality antj 
ehameter of Nortljeni iminigraiits, Hr, O. M, 
CroshVj a native of ^ew England^ gives tJiis ivelh 
considered testimony r “ As a rule^ settlers in Floridn 
come from the class of well-bj'cd Xoi llieni persons 
wlio liavc been unfortunate in the scramble for 
wealth and positioTij or have bodily ailments wlikli 
a balmy climate is expected to eui'e, A riot her class, 
that can Inirdly be called settlers, reprepenta those 
who own 01 ‘ange-grove villas or cuttagesj oecupjiiig 
them only during the winter, as many do their cot¬ 
tages for tlie snintner at Xortheni sea-shore resorts. 
Persons of the first-ineiitloned class are often vision¬ 
ary, fluent with the pen, and mipraetieal, while 
those who reside only a portion of the year in Flor¬ 
ida are hardly to be considered among the effective 
population; and to a smaller tliird class of ]K>or, 
hnake-adiving toilers’ belongs much of the credit 
of Florida’s jn'actical advancement. These are they 
who have brought Northern energy and eoininon 
sense together, and udiKt they have acliieved is 
worth all that has been written hv those who have 
theories yet untried, hut wdio are anxious to get 
them into jirint. The Northern settler at first is in* 
variably lumipered by liis eonceiL He‘ will show 
the slow-going natives a thing or two,’ and it ia 



uflually after he hiu; feunJi tiiost of liig availaljle capi- 
till that he is ready to admit that tliese natives can 
teaeit liiim Usually a eiuriproitiLse in iiicthod@ U 
the result. It k a trilie liuniiliating to the average 
^ ankee fiettler to lind that the largest aiul most 
]>ro(lactive omiige-grovcs are often owned and culti¬ 
vated Ijy native Floridians or Soutljerners, wliom in 
Ids Hiipenor ivisdoin he had considered as lacking 
in successful niethoils,’^ 

If tlie iniscellaiieousness of the American con¬ 
tingent is striking^ tiiat of the foreign settlers is ne- 
eessuHly more so. They emne from British ATneri- 
cii, M exico, Culjo, Centnil America, and South 
Anierica, Tlie Kuropeans come from Kiigland^ IrO' 
land, ScotliiTuh Waies, Austria, Belgium, Bohemia, 
Denmark, France, (jenriany, (troeee, Holland, Italy, 
Luxembnrg, Norway, Poland, Uiissia, Spain, Swe¬ 
den, and SwiUcrlaml, Tiierc are Asiatics from 
Clhina and India, Africans, Anstraliaiis, Sandwich- 
Islanders, and Atliiutic-islamlers. 

Ill such a variety of nationalities tliere is, of 
coui’se, a Vii-st divei’sity of elmracters, talents, mo¬ 
tives, and results, AVIjile, iu gneh an agglomera¬ 
tion, thci-e must he much rilf-nitf, there are at the 
siime time experts iti gome of the best and inost 
promising industries—as the wine-growers of 



FraiieCj tlie eilk-growcrs of Italv, tht! tolaeco- 
gi-owers of Cuba, and the tropical-fruit growers of 
South America, 

Negroes,—The negruca of Florida are niajidj 
rcj^ident frcedmen, witli some additions 

made during the penod of muddle known as rccoii- 
etniction. The fonner make up tlic gi-eat collectu c 
body of this people, and tliej pres^Tve tlic tradi¬ 
tions and tlic genius of tbeir race with exeelleiit 
fidelity. The fortunes of war gave them freedom, 
and eitiKenship iias followed tliroiigh means simi¬ 
larly summary. A recent; Northern writer, with 
striking frankness, says that the newly enfranchised 
slaves lost no time in deserting tlie great army of 
producers to engage almost en maMe in the jiiore 
congenial vocation of polities; tlie production of 
the eta [de crops ceased almost entirely; the idanta' 
tion was deserted for tlie town and tlie crc^^iviad 
rendezvous,” During the period between and 
1870 these slaves worked faithfully in the planta¬ 
tion of polities; but at the latter date a second 
einaTicipation changed their status slightly, and 
since then they have been working somewhat more 
ai^d voting rather less, and are doing vastly better 
in all important respects, So also is Florida pros* 
pering. The future fortunes of tlie negroes arc 



largely in tlie Lands of tlie controlling mcc, and 
they tbeinselves will proliaLly have Little to do in 
8lia])hig it; and douLtlciis the less they Lave to do 
with it the better. 

A iS'orthern wnter else where fjueted—0. &L 
Crosby, author of “ Florida —makes the fol¬ 

lowing jKiinted rcmarkB upon tliis matterr “Outside 
of the old Bliive-ovvning settlements negroes are 
Bcaree, they prcferniig as a rule to work for tlielr 
old imisters latlier than to be driven by the inipetu- 
ouB Norfhernerj wlio they suspect M'islies to get 
more work ont of theai than is agreeable to their 
indolent nature* While the Afrieiin is as nccessiiiy 
in clearing away forests aial in hard manual labor as 
tlic Irishman is at the North, now that lie is free lie 
lias no idea of working more than is barely necessary 
to keep him in pork and grits. If is rations cost at 
most hut a dollar a week, and he secs no reason in 
working six days ont of seven, when three or four 
provide for hitJ own wants and those of his family. 
There are few colored men that Avill agree to work 
^ faithfully l>y the month, or, if thej’ do so agree, they 
often excuse tliemsGlves when most needed with an 
* I reckon I won't work to-day, hoss,^ tliat is aggra¬ 
vating to the new settler, anxious to get his grove 
planted at the right time, and who is used to having 

POP CL A Tioy. 


liaufls wliom, after liiritig, he can eomniaiid, Con- 
needing one Iniiuli'eil men nsimlly employ 
one third more, to keep tlie ranks fiillj and tlien arc 
often left witli but a few, ei?peciiillj after pay-day, 
or until the Jiiun begin to get liuiigry again* Few 
darkies are providential enemgh to lay up enougli to 
kwit them fn>m week to weekj aiidj us their sense of 
honor is low* thev c:m not he Hrnsted7 at the stores. 
Ktnjdoyers arc; usually ^ilunned’ every day for 
money, for ratii>ns, or ‘ hacey7 AVithal they are so 
Ihorcmgidy good-natured, with a doiftrcare for-to- 
iiiorrow air, tliiit the driving employer soon finds it 
necessary to l>c more ejisy with tliecn, realizing that 
crowding will cause them to leave him unceremonh 
oiisly.’^ Thti s^ime writer further says: "^^The 
negro prohleni will iissiiTnc a nevv form, to oven the 
most rabid abolitionist, after a residence in Florida* 
If lie einiiloys colorcil help, paying promptly, feud¬ 
ing well, and treating humanely, lie will naturally 
expect the rutuni and obedience he would from 
lahorei's at the Xorth, and will he suiprised to learn 
how utterly sliiftless and devoid of all honor the 
a\urage Southern darky is, ami will soon find out 
that the latter would much rather work for his old 
owner than for him7^ 

The amount of projx^rty acquired by the negroes 



i« eneoiiTHging; and it is a very suggestive fact in 
tills connection that their greatest progrese—and 
almost tiielr only inatenal progress—has been made 
sin CO 

As to tlie ticgro^s freedom in voting tliere could 
hardlv he a butter witness tban Mr, Hamilton Jay* 

ki ^ V 

Tills writer of liimsclf says: I am a Northern man 
bv liirth and cdncatioii, and earne to Florida in 
18TL For nearly ten years 1 was prominently 
ideritiiiud with tlie Republican party in Florida, 
both in a jonnialistie and oiUeial capacity. In tbe 
national election of 1870 I bad ebarge of the 
United JStatos soldiers at the polls in Jefletson 
Uouiity, and during tlie work of tlie retnming- 
board at TallabaHsee I Wiis editor of the ‘ Daily 
Union,’ a stalwart Republican iiewspaperj then 
publisheil at Jacksonville*’^ Of negro voting Mr, 
day says: statu most solemnly and truthfully 

that I have never seen a negro intimidated by a 
Southern wlntc man in his exercise of the elect¬ 
ive fnxticiiLse. On the contrary, I have on more 
than one occasion seen Southern white Demo¬ 
crats go witli negroes who hesitated to approach 
the polls, and stand by their side while they voted 
the ticket tiiey desired to vote, the Republican 



Indians. —Tlic Indi aiifi of Plorida am calk’d 
Scmjnoles^ Tlie original Indians—after tlie ab- 
urigiruik had risen, Hourislicd, built their inoinids, 
and disappeared—ajjpear to liave been Miceosu- 
kies. Witli tlicsc subsequently' mingled niany fugi¬ 
tives from the Carolina and Georgia ^tuaeogees or 
Creeks under Secotfee, a noted eliief who invaded 
Florida and settled there ill 1750. Tlieae fugitives, 
it is stated, were iirst designated as Seminoles— 
meaning I'efugees, ruiiawaySj VEigabonds““and finally 
the remnants of many tribes that remained in that 
region first eiKlured and then embi’aeed the name. 
Whatever the etymological facts in the case may be^ 
the prowlers, iiumhering nearly three hundred, now 
living tn Subtropical Florida and gjidding about the 
country, look the name i>crfectly. in addition to 
the general mixture of Indian bloods, hundreds of 
runaway negroes have been absorbed ; and tbe half- 
breeds on the white side have a pretty low grade of 
pale-face blood to boast of, 

Tlic latest Ciovermnent reports state the numher 
of Semi Holes as about two Imndred and sixty-nine, 
one third of whom are of fighting age, and living 
in tlie counties of Leo, Monroe, J3^ade, and 35rc- 
vard, principally in the Everglades. Fut the Indian 
evades the eensiis-takcr sus lie would the plague; 



and will lie without gtintj with no motive bigliet 
than to eircumveiit the wiiite inatu 

I'liey live in Bhiftiiig settleluenty, called villageSj 
eacdi one under a cliief* Tlie old-tiinc wigwam lias 
given ]ilaee to the modem liouse, cottiigCj or elianty, 
built of hitnber, rough but hewn or riven. Phizzas 
an<l windows liegin to apjiear. But tlie dwellings 
of the many are shanties* These consist of upright 
jiosts driven into the ground , the roof, a thatch of 
IJaltnettodeaves tied to crn8s-i>oles; the floor, on 
shorter poets about a yard from the ground; the 
sides of the one-rooined houses being open or but 
sligldly protected witli palmetto-leaves* In the day¬ 
time when at home they sit on the iloors, and sleep 
on them at night, the beds so called being I'olled tip 
during the day* Tbeir iigliter social or domestic 
gatherings around the evening yard fires arc—to 
jiiit it tuildly—informal, and the individuals are 
diversely occiipied. Mothers fondle tlvdr papoose&j 
and shell beans, pound hominy in mortars, or }>ull 
Imckskin, or do some other hand work* The chil¬ 
dren and dogs roll and tumble about together in 
play, Tlie men repair their arms and other imple¬ 
ments or accoutremeuts, mold bullets, look on, talk, 
and smoke* The sagefi—old men always lapse into 
gages, it seems—stare into the fii e and grunt mono- 



Byllabiti resj)onscs to those iirouiul them. Tlic 
family pot for next <lay’s feed is boiling over the 
firOj while sonic matron gives it Iier atteutioTi from 
time to tiiiiej adding water, salt, and oiiionSj as her 
judgment dictates^ and a precious mess of iiau- 
seous stilt! it generally is! In the ashes potatoes 
are roasted. I'hcy crawl away to lied, one after 
anotherj as the sjunt moves. 

Young men and spinsters are not expected, nor 
indeed allowed, to talk to wliite visitors, while the 
old men are near The young must affect not to 
undei'stand English on sueli occasions. 

Xear each village tlicrc is always a public 
witli a tall pole in the eerder. Here tlieir 
festivities all are held. These are their stated 
dances, the most iinpojdant of which is the groon- 
eorn dance—a sort of annual worsliip of Cores. 
I'lic celebivition consists flancing arouiul tlic pole, 
eating green corn, and drinking whieky 
which of late yt^ars is the most important feature. 

They grow' ccfrn, rice, potatoes, eugar'Caiie, 
melons, and soine fruit, and keep hogs, euttle, a few 
ponies, and poultry. 

The men iiRiially wear a calico slilrt. midille 

MI ' 


wrap, a shawl, and a turban, and on some special 
occasions, as ^v'bcii visiting tbe white settlements or 



limiting in tlic scnib, piintaloons or leggingSj and 
itioi'Caijiiis* The turban is a conspicuous atid pict- 
nrosijuc aifair^ and quite Oriental iti its eSects. It 
is soinctinicE nearly feet in diameter, and four 
to six inches higlj. It is made of sliawls or wraps 
of Roiiio kind, the outside layer being often a sliowj 
bandanna. It is a Iieavy afTair, and seems to require 
a conscious effoit to keep it in balance. The chiefs 
distingnisli themselves, especially on occasions of 
state, with sfunething^no matter av hat—showy, 
expensive, and onlre ! often a higlily fancy hunt’ 
ing-shirt with hroad c<jllar and fringes all over, 
Sind taAvdry stripes ami ribbons. The children, 
popularly known as jnekaiiinnies, not papooses, 
about their lioines generally wear notlung; hut 
vs'licn traveling they oftCTi wear loose wrappers, 
especially in winter, and during youth wear hnt 
scant a])pareb 

The turban is for a kiga mrllh of the males, and 
is assumed l>elvs'een eighteen and tAveiity. Every 
l^rave has a gun, generally a rifle, the \Vinehcstcr 
being most cmnmon. The traditional how and 
arrows are now the toys of children. 

The children are cheerful, active, and full of 
play, eager to learn to shoot, to sail boats, to read, 
to write, and other like things of the outside world; 



lujt tl»e older folks :ire glum, solf-suti&fied, secretive, 
eofieoitedj and proud of their iguorance^ 

The women wear calico skirts and jacket, or a 
jiliiiii froek^ ami ljca<lsj and they generally go bare- 
f(n)t, Tlieir beads aie absurdly piled up; sometimes 
as iiiaiiy as lifty strings of elicapj colored glass beads 
are ]>ile<l up around the neck and alioulders. The 
old women tie up the hair in a knot on tbe back of 
the head, while tlie spinstei's wear it loose, banged, 
aiul, on rare oceasiOTis, braided. Tbe old squaws 
are hideously hanhfeatured, and formerly they did 
jiretty lumdi all llie house and kitchen drudgery; 
but of late years tiic men, boys, and girls join in tbe 
geiienil work. 

The following account of a very recent visit to a 
Seminole campon tlic Miami River in Dade County 
gives :i fair idea of siibti'iijiieal siivage life in ISSSi 
At lengtli we came to a trail or path which led to 
tbe Indian eain|>. Tins camp is coniposed of several 
huts, having nu siding, only lloors of ruiigli-hewii 
boards, black witli dirt, raised about two feet alxivc 
the grouiKb Roofs of palmetto-leaves are all the 
]>rotcction they have against the inclemency of the 
weather. They liad no furniture of any kind, no 
tiible, chaij's, not even stools or benches to sit on* 
A few jiots and pans stood around, wbicdi were used 



for cooking in, but we dkl not see any dishes; all 
niust eat out of one ])an, iisijig tlieir fingers. 

Everything was in confusion—elothing, bed¬ 
ding, beads, vegehibles, and cooking-utensils. They 
]i(ive strings of small turtltHsbells, with sonic kind of 
seeds, which tiiey fasten around their knees when 
tliey dance, the seeds rattling like sliot in a glass 
hottlc with every inaveTnenL of the wearer. Dried 
skins of hears, wild c^its, deer, and other animals 
were seattered [wndscuoiisly about Lean-looking 
hiack pigs roamed at largo about the premises. An 
oki hen sat coniplacciitly on her nest made of a new 
ealico dress skirt which lay on the floor. Here and 
there were larp^i pans lilled with potatoes, vege¬ 
tables, anil venison, J>iseuit weighing about a 
pound apiece, and ifsh cooked whole witli bead and 
scales on, stood ready for any one whose appetite 
could lie tempted by eiicb dainties. 

We saw none of the Indian men in camp; 
thev must all have been in the field at work, Eut 


Rpiattcd under one of the roofs was a |>iekaninny, 
a boy about four or five years old, and three pretty 
young squaws, daughters of Hilly Harney, The 
younger one of the squaws was really handsome, 
with large, beautiful dark eyes, niild and fawn-like 
in expression, her dark cheeks glowing with healtlq 



as she moved ribout in a, gracefiilj gliding manner 
]Kiculi;ir to tlie raee. All wore calico skirts fanei- 
fiilly trimmed ; and small sLoulderiCapeB,, wliicli 
Ijarelj readied the skirt-bjmd, answered for waists. 
Several pieccB of bright tbij about the size and 
shape of a silver dollar, were fastened at tlie boBom, 
Some ciglitj or a hundred strings of various col¬ 
ored beads were wound around their necks until 
they I'eaehed nearly to their chins. 

One of the squaws was sesving, using a thim- 
Idc, and tlie sewing would do credit to inany a 
white womatn Tliey talked in their own dialect 
among tbemselveSj in a low, almost inaudible tone. 
We ciudd not make out anything tliey said, 
although I think they understood m pretty well, 
as tliey seemed pleased if eompliinented.'* 

The Iinlians frequently visit tlie white settle¬ 
ments, to sell hides, venison, tnrkey, potatoes, etc., 
and to luiy guns, aminunition, sugar, coffee, cloths, 
and whisky—alwavs whiskv. Tlicir words are few 
—for the whites— iti-cahy good; had ; 

w^ o-mee^ whisky—they need few otliers. Jjetters 
they call talk-paper. 

These Indians often live to a great age, Sevenil 
are believed to be past a linndred. 

Tlie Semi poles of the present generation are bet- 



ter tlmn thoHC of the last were, albeit tiie progress 
is pEL*«sing slow* Those old fellows that toma¬ 
hawked children and cut women’s throats while 
rlackson was (Jovenior in 1821 are in no mood to 
forgive anybody to-day* It is not the Indian’s 
revelation to have nicrcdy an eye for an eye and a 
tooth for a tooth j but bis ethics deinaiids every- 
lliiiig for aiiytJiitig, and liis worship is carnage and 
bis sacramental wine is blood. 

Tliose old fellows believe that no civilization lias 
ever equaled theirs ; and they have but a contempt¬ 
uous idea of the Big (diief at \Va.slimgton, albeit 
they have learned—from pedagogues like Wortli^— 
to liavc a certain respect for tlie United States sol¬ 
diers that coinc near them. These sages refuse fre¬ 
quently even to confer with the United States 
agtmts sent to them of late years. Old Chipeo 
said to the agent a few years ago that they did 
not want to liear any ‘^Washington ttUk.” Spe¬ 
cial Agent Wilson in 18S7 was sent to buy lands for 
as many of them as would settle and remain set¬ 
tled on the lauds. He had an interview with Old 
Allcek, as he is &dled, the centenarian ehieftain 
of a cluster of shanties and may be a score of so- 
called l>nives, and in his official report gives this 
account of it; 



^^The old follow h bent aod e^lirivele<l witli iige 
(be told me be was one bimdred jeaj's^ old, and I 
incline to believe he id older), his sight and heanng 
are botli ba<]ly impaired, and a-s lie sat conversing 
with two other old * veterans ’ not many years liis 
Junior, I then heiicld wbat to my mind wiLs a group 
of typiejil aborigines. 

“1 made known my husineiss to Old Alleck 
through iny interpreter, wlio listened very courte¬ 
ously to all I had to &£iy, and then gjive vent to tlie 
most derisive and sareastie laugh I ever heard, after 
wldeli he proceeded with a long harxvngue, not a 
word of which w:is intelligible to me because o^f Ids 
lioai-se guttural style of utterance, but I was told liy 
iriv Indian friend tbat lie would not accede to any 
of my ]>rojtositions.” 

A fairly illustrative ]>ieturc of Seminole charac¬ 
ter, fipirit, and civilisation of tlic past generation, at 
its best, is the row raised l^y the sainted Osceola, 
when the a^eiit at one of oiir stations issued an 
ojxlcr forbidding the sale of ainmimition aud artns 
to the Indians. This order was issued after re¬ 
peated ]>roofs that the Indians were arming them¬ 
selves for further tread lery and greater l^utehcry. 
Osceola, the gentle martyr and ideal Stoic of the 
W'oods, wiis denied the privilege of purchasing pow- 



(ier to plioot mom women and eliildren with; and^ 
Ijurstini^ witli rage, gave vent to his noble feelings 
in tlie(?e worda: ^*Arn J a ncgro—a slave? My 
ski II is dark, hut not hkek I I am an Indian-—a 
Seminole! Tlie white man shall nut make me 
blaek \ I will make tlie wliite man red with blood, 
and tlieii hlacikeii him in the sun and rain, where 
the w'Olf shall smell of his Ijoues and the buzzard 
live upon his llesh T'* 



Thkhp: ie little to iiote In regiird to education in 
Floridii, cxeci>t that it Fins fiillj hept pace with the 
gcreral progress, 

Tlie coni I non'School system is popular, well 
supported, clFicient, and einineutly successful^—in 
very few of the States, indeed, more bo, I3eyon<l 
this, tlic details of its operatiou will not interest the 
general reader. Superintendent A. J, Russell, to 
wliase ahility tliie success is largely due, gives the 
following in his latest report: 

The wI]ole imruber of sehook reported for the 
scholastic year lS80-’87, ending September 20, 
1887, is 2,108, The total cTirollment for the year 
I8ST is 82,453 pupils. The total average daily 
attcndaucc is 51,059 pupils, which is 07 jkt cent of 
tlie total eiirollmetit. The increase in dailv attend- 
ance over preceding year is C,240, The total niiiii- 
her of teachers employed is 2,318—1,739 white and 
579 colored. Total funds exj>euded for Bchool pur- 



nilscd hy State and couidies, Si49,299J5— 
a pfir mpita of tlic total enrollincnt of §5*45 a 
year, and of tlie average daily attendance, S8.S0 
a vcar* 

III addition to the eoininoii sdiools tliero are 
several important inetitiitionfi for liigher and epeeial 
ediieatiozi, bucIi as— 

14 10 Florida Agrioiiltiii'al (College at Lake City, 
endowed hy the United States, where Btudcnts of 
tile State may receive a foil collegiate eonreo and a 
thorough jiraetical cotime in agricultnrc free of ali 
expOTiBe, except for hoard at a veir inoderatc charge* 
Sti; dents not doeiring to take tlio literary con rise 
may take a special course of six or twelve months at 
option in agriculture. 

The Fast Florida Sciiiinarv, at (iainosville, a 
lurge military an<l normal institution, with a fine 
corps of teacliers* 

Tlic West Florida Seininaiy (Seminary West of 
the Suwannee liiver), at Tallahassee, similar to the 
lireeedingj the two Bcminaries having a joint en- 
dowinent fund of §92,30D, aiTordiiig a revenue of 
wliicli is tiivided equally hetweeu them. 

The Florida Univemity, at Tallahassee* 

An Institute for the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind, 
recently established hy the State at St. Augustine. 



Both races are admitted, the Imsidings for tliem 
bciTig separate. 

Kollins College, founded in ISS-'j, at Winter 
Park, Os'ange Coimty, with an en downs cut aiuoiint- 

ing to §114,000. 

De Land UMiver?ity, at De I^ndj Volusia 
County, cliarlerod in ISST, had been for some years 
growing up from tlie De Liind Academy* It has 
four departments in successful opcnition. 

A State Xormal College for each race was or- 
ganijjcd and opensd during the past yciir. Tiie one 
for widtes is at De Funiiik Springs^ Walton County ; 
and the one for colored students is at Tallahassee. 
Both are in opemtion to*day. 



Tkk productive industries of FJonda ai'c numcr- 
ousj YuriL'dj inifHjj'tarit^ and to a considerfllde extent 
]iccailuii', "J'lic variety of [iroduets is greater than 
in any other State, 

JVoniinent among these, and altogether the best 

advertised of all, is the growing of citrus fruits. 

f>f these fruitfi tliere are six well-known kinds— 

tlie orange, lemon, lime, Bliaddoek, grape-fruit^ and 

eiJroii, The statement lias been made that there 

are two liuiidred and hftv varieties in all in the 

State ; mu I nurserv-nuui advertise alioiit i talf that 
’ ■■ 


Oranges.—The orange is hy far the most ini- 
]Hntant of tliese eitnis fruits, and its ciiltni^ has 
heen kmgest lieforc the piihlie. It is stated that 
there are $10,000,000 invested in oraiige-groveSj 
with rootn for live times that amount. The crop 
just gtdhercd, accoiding to actual returns of the 
transport El tion eompiLuies, aggregates 1,120^79^ 


orates. The average price net has been alKiiit 
a crate; the net value of the crop being, acc<trd- 
ingly, §1,825,414* Upon this as a it ib safe 
to reckon the aggregate croj) at 1.250,0(30 crates, 

and tlie net value at more than §2,000,000, Tiie 
coming crop is estimated hy Cajrfain A. Ives, of 
tiie Florida Fruit Exchange, at from 2,000,000 to 
2,500,000 crates, and no better anthority tlian lie 
can be cited. 

Tlie oldcBt and most widely known grove in the 
State, probably, is the Diinuiiitt gro^e, on Indian 
Ibver, near Canaveral. It was started about 1850, 
and luus now eojne 3,000 trece. Xear by, on the 

IA2 Till'S j'Lailll^A or TO-PA y. 

west slioro, k the Bpratt The produc¬ 

tive mid the ]:ir^04 heariti^ grove in tlie State^ and 
](rol>ab1y hi the woHd, is that of pJ. A. IJarris, on 
Orange Lahe, in IVIarion (JoUTity, eovenng 185 acres, 


and liaving 30,000 bearing trees, Tlie last crop 
from this grove was crates, which sold for 

§55,000. It was stated that the crop of 1835-’S6 



brought §n0,000* Contiguous to tliis grove lie 
several iinportint one^j aggregating alK)iit 500 aercs^ 
all being in or near bearing* One of these, owned 
hy the Diiiiii Brothers, is valned at over 8^00,000. 
There are also the itattliews grove, tlie John 
Church and Cotnonnv* and several others, Tliis is 
doubtless one of the most important orange centers 
ill the State. The younger gi'ove of J* Hart Norris, 
at Spring (.xanicn, Volusia Countv', 200 acres, in 
partial bearing, is also an im|)ortant one. So is the 
Bishop grovo. The Spear grove, near Sanford, 
Oi-angc County, has only four and a half acres, but 
tlie trees are large—twenty^fivo or thii tv years old— 
and the yield is from 10,000 to 15,000 ciatcs a year* 
Near Sanford also is the Belair grove; and farther 
down the St* John’s Eiver h the Hart grove, which 
yields about $10,000 a year* All tlirongh these 
central eouiities, from the Atlantic to the Gulf, 
tiiere ai'e hundreds of valuable and i-a]>idly advanc- 
ing groves, altogether too numerous even to mention 
by name, much less in detail, 

Tlie claims, or ]>retensioiis, as the case may be, 
of diCEerent regions are very conliicting and confus¬ 
ing; but to one not iutorested in any way in tho 
orange business it seems to be by general agreement 
settled —ouimle the Belt—that tho Indian River 



region liaj^ sonic advantngos over all otlicrSj and eivn 
grou’ and Ints grown tlie (itiest oranges In Florida, 
and “in Florida” means in tlic world. Tiie 
John's region, liowevcr, and the inkiior counties ly¬ 
ing west of that, are unqncstionably doing a heavier 
husiness tlian tlie paradise along the occan-cuast is 
doing thus far. Btit all over the <h-aiige jkdt, and 
north of it in Xortliern Florida, an<l south of it in 
Subtropical Florida, tlic orange grows and thrives 
witli more or less success, though its habitat is in 
Sciiihtrojiical Florida^—the Orange Belt jiropcr. In 
Nortliern F'loi’ida, except along the w’ater-protected 
(Inlf coast “and occasionally there-—there is con- 
sidcrahle risk of losing crops hy frost; an<l in tlie 
subtropics, lying south of tlic Orange Belt, the 
orange is crowde<l out by more jirofitable fruits of 
tliat climate, and it is possible tliat the hniciug of 
winter is needed to bring tlie orange to iU hesL 
As many as ten tliousjind oranges, it seems, have 
heoii gatiiercd from a single tree in one year in sev¬ 
eral instances; one near AValdo in Alachua Coun¬ 
ty, and one near Tampa in ilillshorougli Comity. 
Ko tree, it is sUted, dates back beyond the free>:e of 
lSi?5, The backset given to this industry by the 
cold snap of ISSd operated but Khghtly and only for 
a time to arrest the enthnsiasm in the business. 



The cause for depression is already gonCj as tlic 
large crop just gathered proves \ that being the 
largest ever grown iu tlic State* 

As to California's claini to he the great orange- 
growing State, a few facts ivill show tlve emptiness 
of such claim, Professor Biidd, of the Iowa Agri* 
cnltural College, lias recently examined that Pacific 
region 5 and he reports that in the entire State of 
California the area adapted to the jjrodiiction of 
oranges does not exceed 35,000 acres. Dr. Keii- 
worthy lias recently published tlie statement tliat 
the one connty of llillshorongh in Florida contains 
fiillv 40*000 acres of land better adapted to the cult- 
lire of oranges, lemons, limes, grape-fruit, shad* 
docks, and citrons, tlian the California lands above 
referred to 5 and that in the same connty are icift 
times as many as 35,000 acres on which oranges 
nisiy be Buceessfulij grown, without having to re¬ 
sort to the expense of some §15 an acre for irri¬ 
gation, Kow there are fully fifteeTi connlies of 
Florida within tlie Orange Belt If llillshorongh 
County has ton times as much orange-land as all 
California, and there are fourteen other counties 
in Floriila’s Orange Belt, the rivalry between Cali¬ 
fornia and Florida can not be very damaging to 
Florida. It is elsewhere shown tliat the cl undie 



of Floridit euiU tlie orniigo better tlinii does tiiat 
of Cidifuniia. 

The varieties of tiie orange best fliiifcd to the 
various soils, climates, and cultures of Florida may 
bu learned from tlie books on Orange Culture,” 
JMCTition of wliieh is made elsewhere in these pages. 
XiiTy jjositivc preferences will be found there* 
The mandarin varieties deserve earefnl attention 
and trial, and seme have hecii already approved by 
growers, '^fhe kmnfptuf^ also, or CUrm Japonim^ 
Rcems to liavo qualities that commend it to the at¬ 
tention of the ciiltiirUt^ of the Orange Belt* 

Lemons*—The lemon stands in popular thought 
next to tlio onmge, altboiigh not a great deal, com- 
parjitively* has Ijeen done in that direction id tins 
country—this mainly, perliaps, on account of the 
inferiority of the earlier varieties planted. More 
recently the old Spanish rough-coated lemon lias 
heeii giving place to better fruit. Five iincr va¬ 
rieties Jiave been tried, some with fair but none 
thus far with plicnomcnal success; but time prom- 
Lses the very best results. The Villa Franca, Bel- 
air l^remium, and Genoa aiM 3 the favorites of the 
imported kinds; and all are vastly superior to the 
old monstrosity of other days* The Sicily and the 
Eureka arc oarucstly advocated by some* But 


tliere are doubtless a score of varieties that will 
be found to do well. 

Tlic lemou is a slmdc less baixly tlian tlie or¬ 
ange, find it can not be grown as far north as can 

Lkm( n 

that sister fruit The sontlierii half of the semi* 
tropics and all the region southward of it are well 
siiitcd to the lemon; and, within that safe and lim¬ 
ited area, it is a fjnestion if it be not the more 
profitable of the two in the future* The Villa 
Tranca was hut slightly if at all hurt near Sanford 
by the cold snap of 1S8G ; wliile north of tbat^ in 
all unprotected localitieSj there was more or less 



ciainnge done to tlio kmoii-trecs, tlioiigb in gen- it \Vii& tein])ornrv- 

Limes*—The lime seeim destined to take tlie 
nlaec of tlic iemoii in many uses, bnt as vet it is 
not half iio well kno^nn Tiie fact that its area of 
production Is far more limited than that of tiie 
orange, and even of the lemon, will give it sonic 
advantage when it readies its legitiniate place in 
the fruit-iiiarket It is the teiiderest of the citrus 

family, and is coTifine<l pretty closely within the siih- 
tropical region, although several fine and success¬ 
ful trees have been grown as far north as 28"^ on the 


Gulf and on tlie A tliintic side. Tlie lime lias 
not li^ilierto been grown for the obvious reason lliat 
its habitat has not been settled long enougli vcL 
Anywhere north of the line just indicattxlj 
the Jirne is very liable to damage from eold nearly 
every winter, the testimony of land agents to tlie 
contrary notwitlistamliiig, Tlie counties of Clarion, 
Dade* and Lee embi'acc nearly all the territorv 

1 ^4 

available for safe Hine-culture. The growing of 
tb Is fruit lias been thus far mainly c\]ierimental, 
very few acres liaving been iilanted anywhere and 
Init little marketing done; but the success of a few 
indivKhials, in the region where the lime can grow, 
lias been ’|jlicnomenal, and prices rcali;;e<l corre¬ 
spondingly great On Lake AVortli, in Dado 
County, Captain E. X* Diniick has a lime tree of 
tlie fruitage of \tliich and the sales he has kept a 
careful and separate record and reckoning. The 
tree, of the variety known as tlie l^fesieaii or Flor¬ 
ida lime, was planted in 1877; and at the age of 
nine years—in 1S8C-’8T—it bore more than 12,;>00 
limes. Tiiese were sold in Jacksonville and yielded 
the handsome sum of SJ7.T2 ?ie£: The tree is, of 
coui’se, an exceptionally fine and favored one; but 
the results are important as indicating jiossibilitios* 
The fruit matures nearly every month in the year* 



Tlic iiiiiy he planted a hnndiTed to the acre, 
or even eloscr, as they arc much smaller, even in 
the subtropics, than the orange or the loiiion* The 
fruit licgins to appear in the third or fourth year 
from the seed, Tlic Tahiti Is the most tropical of 
the VEirieties now grown in Florida; but the Im¬ 
perial and the Persian arc preferred by sosne. Still, 
the common or Mexican iime, brought into the 
State by the Siiaiiiards from Mexico, is for genei^al 
economic jnirposcs perliajjs equal to the best. This 
variety grows well and is exeeptionally free from 
the <liscases so conimon in the citrus family, A 
sul>-variety of this common kind, left on the oast 
coast l>v tlie missionaries of tlie older da vs of tlie 

I -t' 

Spanish <!omiiiation, known there to-day as t!ie 
Mission lime, is the very best of the older kiiuls. 
The fniit of this is larger and oT smoother peel* 
Prod table crops have been gathered in Da<lc County 
from trees live years old. 

' Other CitruB Fruits, —Tlie other nieinbei'B of 
the citrus family are but little grown for sale; the 
gi*ape-friiit being most often seen in our American 
markets, wlierCj however, it is growing in favor* 
The shaddock also is rarely seen. This fruit, lias 
been known to measure twelve inches in diameter. 
The citron is still scarcer in the cities, except in the 



form of [>raserves. It grows on a tree the most 
irregular and sliruhby of idl the eitnis tribe* All 
these grow well, along with the orange, in the semi- 
tropics, all being hardier than the lime and the 

Vahiahle information and guidance, both prae* 
tical and theoretical, on orange-growing especially 
and citrns-growing generally, are to he found in the 

boots devoted to those subjects. All the essential 
poirits on these fruits—soils suitable for them, best 
varieties to cvilti\‘ate, times to |>lant, diseases, draw- 
Ijiicks, forcilisiej-s, and all that ]x.‘rtaiTJs to this fasci¬ 
nating and soinetiines disappointing pursuit—niay 
he found iii the hooks: Moore’s Orange Culture 
in FloritUv,'’ Mannville’s Orsinge CullIbivis's 
^‘Onjiige (hiItnrc,’^ Spaulding’s ‘'Grange Culture 
in California,’’ Garey’s Orange Culture in Califor¬ 
nia,” Galesio On the Orange,” mid Helen I bar- 
court’s “ Florida Fruits and liow to I’aise them.’' 

These, and seveial otliers that the reader will read¬ 

ily find upon iiKiuiry, will give all the 1 k 4]> tlmi 
can come from books; and, beyond that, jir.ictical 
ci^fiericnee is all-im]iortant. 

Co&oanuts.—The cocoaiiut has been for several 
veal's now attracting attention in tlic subtrojiies*# 
There are few chroniclers that liavc the hard! 1 mod 



to lissL-rt tJiiit it ciiJi livy ail cl fruit woll aitv^vliei^e 
uorth of tljat favored region. The oiilv serious at¬ 
tempts to grow eoeoamits have heeo in Monroe, 
Dade, and Lee (Nnintios; aticl in the noittiern part 
of tliis section—as at diipiter InleL on the Atlantic 

{.’uCUAKrT OllOVE. 

ciHistj ami Bcsutl] of the lino 27“—tlie fruiting h not 
vurv satisfactory. On tlie Florida Kevs in Monroe, 
on tlie coast of Dade, are the extensive groves of 
dohn l.owOj LTRin trees, of which ooci are in bear¬ 
ing; of E. fX Jjjcke, 25,000 trees, of wiiich H)i> ate 



in Loariug; of Williams Warren, :3r>,000 trees; 
and luiineroiis others of from 1,400 up to 18,00(1, 
more or less in Ijeariiig. On the west coast of Mon¬ 
roe tlicre are Janies A. WaddclPs grove of 3(1,000 
trees, and two or tliree other extensive groves. Set¬ 
tlers in the Caloosahateliee Kiver region, in Lt-e 
Cunntj, are planting extensively; and gratifying 
results are eonfidently expected in the near future. 
Jaine& Evaiie, at Fort Myers, in that, valley, has 
a number of sporadic now finely hearing trees 
about tbiitv years old* In Dade County there are 
lit l.ake Wortli about 2o,UOO trees, tlie oldest plant¬ 
ed in 1878, of wliieh perliaps 2,300 arc in bearing; 
anti, Ronth of tlnit, Field A Osborne have planted, 
within tlie past four years, about 330,000 nuts* 
Tims tlie aggregate number of trees in tlie three 
Riibtropieal counties is Bometliing over half a niillion 
phintcd and ]Uohably living, of which may Ix} 3J)(Ki 
Iiave reached the nut-bearing age OJ' stage. The in¬ 
dustry is a new one. The most productive ti-ees are 
reported to bear 303 nuts a year; but 100 nuts a 
year to tlie tree is considered a good a\ enige for 
Ijcaring trees, althougli 201) to the tree* as single 
trees, is not infref|uent One writer estimates that 
81,300 a year to tlie acre can be re:i!ize<l from co- 



Tliere Jirc two voHcties of the coeoatiiit—the 
green and tlie 3 'ellow-—foniirl in Florida, They 
grow onh" near j?alt water and in tlie Siilt atmosn 
pliere, Liincstone soils, coral sands, and mold 
liaininoc‘k&, arc all said to be favorable for these 
trees. Tliev l>car mits at from seven to ten years 
under favorable circnnistanees. The oldest trees in 
tlie Slate vvere jdanted at Ke}" Wost in Marion 
County, at Miauii in Dade, aiul at Fort Myers in 
Lee, in or near 1345. There arc trees in Key AVest 
iicar]_v eighty feet high. Very little enltivation is 
thought to be renuired, A hundred trees to the 
acre is the usual spacing. If it is true, as is coiiti- 
denth' claimed, tliat the ooeoanut-jialin (the C'oem 
7\iw[fera of the botanists) will not eudni'e frost, 
then its growing may- lie safely^ assumed as marking 
the frostless region ; and, that point conceded, men 
need not bother, wrangle, and Heer about the frust- 
Itne, so called. 

Pineapples,—Tins fruit will bear a little, lint 
verv little, more cold than the eoeoanut; but, by 
11 jeans of special protection, pineapples may be 
grown, with moderate risk, up to tbe middle of the 
semhtropics, tlio quality of the fruit being poorer 
tbe farther north. Tliey^ have now been cultivated 
many ycai's with fair success, tbougli on a very^ liin- 

PROD ran 


ited Ecale, in the suhtroplcs, espcci:illy iii>oii the 
keys ill Monroe Coniitv. The area is eiilargiii", anil 
now enihi'aees all Monroe, Dade, and Lee Counties. 
It is estimated that fully 500 acres are in eultivatiofi 
at tills time. Tlic hardier and less valuahle varieties 
liave been grown in parts of Northern I'kiHda, hut, 
as a crop, they can not be grown there- In benii- 
tTopical Florida, especially in the soutliern half of 
it, south of or 30', they can be grown ^vdtlj 
only an oecaisioiial killing by frost; but in tlie noith- 
ern half of the Oi-ange Dclt protection of some soi*t 
is imiispensahle and the crop exceedingly nncertaiii, 
vaporing assertions to the contrary notwithstanditjg- 
They are doubtless, in their iGgitirnatc area, and un¬ 
der suitable conditions, one of tlie most paying crops 
in the State- 

Thcrc are many varieties; hut the one most 
commonly gro\™ is called tlie Kcd Spanish, and 
this with proper cultivation in the extreme south 
is a most excellent fruit, and weighs oriliiiarily 
from two to four pounds, frequently going higlicr. 
Reasoner Brothers, in their “ Catalogueetate tliat 
the following are synonYtns of Red Spanish : Straw¬ 
berry, Scarlet, Cuban, Havana, Key Largo, and 
Black Spanish. Tinea])pie-growers, however, are 
beginning to experinieut with finer kinds, such as 



the IVniamlnicoSj Purto Kicoi?j Cuban Garden PiiiLs^, 
K^yptijni Queens, and othei^ of the larger and liner 

TIio Ked Spanisli may be pknted from 10,000 
t(j 12,000 jilunts to the acTc. Growers expect to 
gatlier sibont scveiity-five jjer cent of tlie plantings. 
Many gather less, and some get more. It depends 
largtdy upon the enltivation. 

Sandy soil snits all kjtnls of pines best; and 
iiner, tenderer, awl more richly flavored frjiit is 
grown on sand or sandy loam than anywheiie else. 
Tbey fihonld be planted high and tlry, and watered 
freely during drought. Suckers yield fruit fre¬ 
quently ill one year, but tlie ordinary slip needs 
two years to fruit after setting out. With reason¬ 
able attention and skill an acre may yield ^1,000 a 
year net; and with the iiner varieties, when these 
have been soccessfully introduced, nincli larger 
protits may be reasonably expected. Idorichi can 
grow liner fruit and of betto llavor and quality than 
mast if not all other competitors in the American 
markets, for the reason that home-grown fruits may 
be allowed to ripen more fully, because the time of 
trauBportation is less; and fruit ripened thus iiat.u- 
rally is v astly superior to that cut green and cured in 
transit or in the markets, And, further, the equa- 



twial countries get their fruits into our iiiEirket>5 
during April, May, and June, after wliieli they be¬ 
come scarce* Florida sends licr pines to market in 
June, July, and August; so that, being later, they 
tiiid a demand mainly after the tropical supply is 
exliausted. There need be no doubt that the tiY>p‘ 
ics produce a fruit both larger and liner than the 
subtropics can liope to do. The Pernambuco ]iine, 
for example, whose habitat is witliin 10® of the 
equator, attains there a weight of eighteen or twen< 
ty pounds, according to some tnistwortiiy authori¬ 
ties; whereas it is not to !>e hoped that more than 
half that weight, under present cultivation at least, 
be aeliieved in our country. 

It is not praeticijble to get full returns, or even 
trustwoi'l.liy reekojlings, of the latest cro]> of ]>ine- 
ii]iples; Ijiit the area planted and the iwoduction are 
doubtless more than doutdinff everv vear. Mr, Pieh- 
ards, of Eden, on lower Indian ftiver, near the north* 
crii bound ary-line of tbe subtropics, rej^torts that up 
to the iirst of July last there had Ijecii shipped from 
that point about 1,000 barrels or bamd-crates of 
pineapples, Mr. Knight, of Sebastian River — 

18'—and ifr. irorscli are engaging somewliat large¬ 
ly in the raising of this fi'tiit, 

T]ie European markets liave been tried with 



very limited 4ji[>ineiitii of pines, and tlioso iiiainly 
of tlie tiner kiiid^. A prominent London finn of 
frnit-dualers tlio fact that tliey have eokl 

Florida pines? at twenty-five s?liilling& sterling—tliat 
i.s, over six clullars^—apiece; but tliey do not itiention 
the vanety nor the size and weight of the fmit so 

i< Cj 

Rokl- Another iintliority tlntes that a ])inc weighing 

nassold in that city for tlirce pounds 
sterling, about fifteen dollars, or a dollar a pound! 

Bananas,—The banana will grow in both the 
sen.'i-tropics and the siihtiv>pics; hut the surer crop 
and the finer fruit belong to the latter, with all 
otlier tropical fruits. The kind most planted on 
the keys and on the east shore generally—and wher¬ 
ever wiials ai-e fitiong and fitiqucnt—is known as 
the dmnif hiiiiann^ 'vhieh stands from six to eight 
feet Idgh. 'LL is is known to botanists as the Mma 

The Keusoner Lrothci^s consider this 
to be tbe same as tiie Obiiiese, called also dicarf .Ai- 
muita or Marihivjue hanana. The yield of fruit is 
enormous, sometimes as many as two hundred or 
three Jiniidn:?d in a bniich, and the flavor excellent 
JhofesBor Wlntner states tliat only the coarser varie¬ 
ty known as h&rse-hananu can ])e relied upon alnive 
the subtropical region* In this eoiinfry the distinc¬ 
tion between binaiia and plantain is kept up, the 



latter being the coarser siinl harJicr kiiul; but 
in India, ponioeTiltiinstB liave abamloncd tbc name 
hfinana altogetlier, anti treat all varietiee of botli \\n- 
fler the name of Of bananas in Florida, 

there are two vanetie>?, eoinniunlv known ;uid called 

TtiK ASH the Pineai'I’lE, 



yoHow aiiO rL‘d rcspectivoly, from the color of tlie 
ripened fruit. The plmitiihij so called, is vi'cry mrc. 

Thu Inurmu la prajia^ted from hulbs and Buck- 
el’s ; and tiicfic fruit the second year, never tljc hrst 

Aloi^t BoIls, very rich, suit tlie banana best, aiid 
frcfjncnt rotatioii — some SpaniBh authorities saj 
every three veal's—is necessary; but higher lands 
yield fairly well with abundaut niins; and very tine 
<j Mali ties, of limited size, have Inscn grown on sandy 
louTii, well molded and moist; but the richest of low 
haniniocks are tlie best for tliis fruit. Ktill, the ex- 
■ periinentvS thus far, as to soils, are by no means com¬ 
plete or biial. The lands snitahio fur the banana as 
a crop of profit are quite limited in area, in the 
prt>por cUniate, and tlie crop is generally felt to be 
a rather risky one. From a thou sand to twelve hun- 
dj'ed to the acre is as close as the plante should l>e 
put out. Bananas arc grown extensively by ^fr. 
Baugh, on Sebastian Biver, in Brev^ard County, 

The bananas grown in Dade County liave sold, 
several years ago, on tlie ground, as higli as a dollar 
a bunch ; but about half of that is eonsidered a very 
good price. 

This fruit is very luitritioius as food, and the 
poor in some tmpical countries—notably the eerub 



savages of ifcxrco—it U make iMinaiuts a cliief 
iirtkle of food, nmiilioldt is (juoted iin alfiniiing 
tliat ai) area of land tliat would grow wheat enough 
to feed but one man would jirodncc in iKUiaiuis 
enoagh to feed t\\'ciitjdive iiicu, 

I*rofeseor Wliitucrj hi his Gartleniiig in Flor¬ 
ida,” gives the eurioiis piece of information that llic 
Spaniards at one time supposed tlie banana to Ikj 
tlie original forbidden fruit mentioned in Genesis, 
and, fnnn the fancied resemblance to a cross found 
in the nlarks on a tnmsverse section, the)' ciaiincd 
tliat in eating it Adam had ii glimpse of the mys¬ 
tery of redemption by the cross. 

Pears.—Tlie JjC Conte pear grows in great luxu¬ 
riance in Xoiihem Florida, thronghont the splendid 
tier of counties between Jacksonville and PcnsaeoliL 
Several other kinds—^the Bartlett, I^wson, Jajian, 
and some others—have been tned in the Sbvte, but 
none has found the conspicuous success of the Taj 
C onte, This pear was introduced into LilH.Tty 
County, Georgia, in lS5i>, by llajor John Ta? Conte, 
who lionght it, ^lS Frofessor Whituer states, of some 
Northern niirsery-maii for a seedling of the Chinese 
gand-i>ear. It turned out, however, to be utterly 
unlike the Cliincsc fruit, and very apfimpriately 
received the name of its introducer, Le Conte. 


FiiiMicr ciiltivjitioJi and dcvelopiiiunt 1>y 
Vaiuadoe, of Tlioinitsvillc, Georgia, loude pear 
whid it is to-day, the best pear in the South. Jt k 
a hybrid, and thcrefort^ be [>rt»paguted by 

cuttings or slip.^. Tlie tree begins to iiear fruit at 
four or live years of age. and at teu fsoiuctitiiefi 
stands twenty feet higli, and bears ten to tifteeii 
bushels of pears, The orchard-spacing should allow 
nearly foitv feet between the tiaje.-. The iiears sell 
at from to fio a Imshel-erate. 

All along the line of railroad running westward 
from .IsK-ksonville, and notably around Tallahassee, 
tlie visitor ^A'ill l)e struck with tlie superl> groves in 
all directions, rivaling both In picturesejue Ix'uuty 
and ]H'osaic profit the splendid oi’jinge groves of the 
ecini-tropics farther south. North Florida may well 
alTord to forego the romance invested oninge-groves 
of the Orange Belt in view of tliese er^pndly splendid 
Lc C'oiite ]iear-groves. 

Grapes and Wine.—The experiment of growing 
iirst-class grapes fur wine has Ijcen made in Flnriiia, 
and with complete succcbs. Mr. K. Dubois, an 
experienced wdne-grower from France, lias made a 
careful, full, and systematic trial of the m\[ and 
climate of Northern Florida with wine yielding 
grai>esj aiKl the very best rcsidls lia^ e re’ivarded 



him. He liEid prospeftod in gevenil other parts of 
the United States hoforc deciding nix>n liis present 
place. In 1SS3 lie liegaii viueyaixJs with a few 
acres in Lc{>n CouTity, near Tallahassee, and trvday 
lias tJiirtv acres jihintcd in vines, mostly C yntliiana, 
XortoTij Klvim, and Missouri Kiesling. In 18S7 he 
had ten aercs iti bearing, and gathered twenty tons 
of grapes and made 2,500 gallons of wine—claret, 
liock, Sauternes, and port — which to-tlay sells 
readily at from A 1.25 to $2 a gallon* This year 
he will make at least 4,000 gallons* AVhen the 
thirty acres reach the bearing stage, he can safely 
reckon on lurnitig out from 8,000 to 10,000 gallons 
a year, and tliat means 81^,000 or §15,000 a year* 
]>ronoiiiieed bnt still very satisfactory re¬ 
sults were reacltcd by the late Colonel M* Martin in 
Gadsden County twenty years ago. In 1800 this 
earlier experiment was begun. The vineyards still 
yield large crops of gra|>es—Hartford Urolitic, Ives, 
Concord, Delaware, Martha, and Cynthkna—ftvnn 
which fii-sbclass wines are duly inanufactured. 

Bcsiiles the above-mentioned varieties, the 8ciip 
pemong aufi that family of grapes have been groAvii 
iu various parts of the State with varying results* 
In the soutbern half of the State several of the 
grapes mentioned h,ave been tned with t?l 11 ^ 



satisfactory results. Just whieli vanetics will sue* 
cced in the sulitrojiias lias not. been fully settled yet, 
hut it seems certain that Xortheni Florida is bettor 
giiited to the grape gGuerally tlian the two uiore 
soulberij sectiotis. Fiitiii'c efforts, however, may 
liiid varieties well suited to all sections* 

Grand Possibilities.—Thei'c aiu many tropical 
fruits yet on trialj as it were, in Snljtro]>ieal Florida, 
of wliieh tlje future is more or less undefined and 
inKleteriiunablc at present, but which may be de¬ 
li ned as 

I’roniiiient aiiifuig these possiliilitic.s aro these: 
the guava, mango, inangostecn, mammee, niani- 
mce sapota, sapodilla, and most of the large Aftona 
fiiniily. Tlie^se fmita, all fine in their separate ways, 
are grown with perfect success perliups only in the 
tiyipics, and they are ^cell known to books and 
travelers. They are now on trial in 8nhtropicai 
Florida, and a few of them bav'c attained success. 
They are of course hut little known, cxeejd by 
name, beyond tbe subtropics, on account of tlie 
impossibility of getting them to market in good 
condition witli existing means of transport at ion* 
They arc mainly saecbariiio-aeid frnits, and need to 
ripen on tlm stem in order to develop their best 
qualities. Hence, there is not time after gathering 



to reacli distant niarktife. Even oilimds emikl not 
get tljciii ttj Nortlierii markets, for tlie rc:isnn that 
the agitation of the rail movement would, as in the 
case of new Biigar^ cause the fruit to decjiy rajiidly 
l>y deliquescence or eoinc similar j>roeess, niiless the 
tcnii>eratiire be kept too low for tliat destructive 
process. Wliat is wanted, accordtngly, is citlier the 
refrigerator-car, or water-movement steam, with¬ 
out transshi|irncnt between the producing giviive^and 
the consuming markets. "With either of these—and 
of tlicee the refrigerator seems hy far the better, 
but experiments must deckle their relative merits— 
most, if not all, of these delicious fruits can be put, 
in excellent condition, into the Northern and i>os- 
sihlj into the British markets. 

The gitava is widely known through its jelly, so 
deservedly popular; luit the fruit itself is little 
known beyond its Imljitat. The eommon guava 
grows easily and abundantiy, reaching fully twenty 
feet in height sometimes, all through the subtropic 
coiintieft, and in faet will live and lie^ir fruit in both 
the snbtrojjies aTid the seTni-tropics; but Natiirc^s 
rule is inflexible—tlie farther north it is planted the 
more uncertain is its growtli, the smaller the tree or 
filirub, and the scarcer and poorer the fniih Its 
KueeesG in Monroe, Dade, and Lee w not at all 



problematical. There it ripens some seven or ei^lit 
rnontlis in the yeai', from ilay till January* say, 

hilt most abimdanflv in 


Two varieties are quite 
conimon, and are called 
the sv\ ect and the sour or 
aeid. The former is the 
kind most commonly’ eat¬ 
en, while the latter alone 
will make jelly of the tiret 
fjII al ity, u nassist ed w i th 
enlinary aids. The shape 
is tlint known as mali- 
although it is more 
nearly that of a lemon 
Mian of an apple. It is of this guava—the Pmdimn 
(y//ayfzrrt—that the Rea.^mcr Brothers say: "^The 
guava lias betonie a necessity to Boiitli Florida; is 
to Soutli Florida what the peach is to (rcorgia.” 
The Outtley guava was introduced fj'oin Cliina by 
an Kngtishmaii wlio gave it his name. This is 
more hardy than the common, is more a slirub, 
and will stand the ficmi-tropical climate doubtless 
very well altliough it liiis not been yet very tlior- 
oiighly tested. 



Tlie mat^fjo liiis been tried with a meiiijure ef 
Kiiecess ill the exrretiie and lUi- far north a.s 

the mouth of Tiimt>a Bav—not far from —it u 

reported to have done well, but even tliere it 
riskv. One tree of the apricot variety in tliat 
regionj owned by Mr. 2secld, of Piiielia-S at eiglit 
year^i old bore 8,000 mungos one year. Tlie frt‘e>ie 
of 1380 proves that this is rather far north for tliis 
tropical fruit. The tree iisuaily bears fruit in five 
or six ycai^ fraiii tlie seed. 'J’hcre aie two kinds 
])lauted in Florida, and it is yet on tlic experimental 
jitit, except on the extreme south coast and tlie 

Finniiigerj writing of tlie large Mulda mango in 
India, its habitat, says, “ To those who liave never 
partaken of it, no words can convey an idea of this 
exquisitely luscious fruit”; and another a[>[>rccia' 
tive \vriter says that tlie pnlp of tlie clioice varieties 
is of the consistency of blane-inange, so as to lie 
eaten with a spoon, and livaling if not cxccfiing any 
fruit in the world for deVieioiisiicss of flavor. This 
is wliat Xortlicrn consumers ina 3 ’ ho[>e to should 
the growing and transportation pn:>ye a success in 
Florida; and if contiMsts sliarply with the pitiful 
greenish, slirivtded, tnrpcntine-tlavored little mangos 
sometimes, hut luckily nut ofterij found iu Xorthern 



nmrkets. The iiian^o i-s often afi large iis ii goose* 
The lieiisoncr Jirothei'g sav r “ We Ciiti not 
fejjcak too liiglilv of tliis delectuhlo fruit, destiued, 
we hoj»e, to become fis plentiful in South Florida as 
the orange. In productiveness and rapidity of 
growth it surpasses my fruit-tree \vc have ever seen, 


either tcnii>erate or tropical. Some trees in Central 
America—latitude aliout 10°—arc described as hav¬ 
ing trunks four feet in diameter, the trees standing 
Bixty feet apart, and yet the biiinclies touch ” In the 
subtropics, of course, these tropical trees fall corre- 
epondingly short of such proportions j but Florida 



eiiM alr&nly Loast ecverul wcll-growii trees. I'lio 
Giiateiiiitla nmngo in Flori^la rijiens as early as 
Marelu but tlje regular season is later tlisin that Of 
the Cuban varieties an excellent authority eormitlers 
the lobed apple tlie Ijest. Tlie finbtrojiieal mirfiery- 
men offer tvvdvo varieties, and all of these will in 
due time be fullv tested. Lots of Florida-grown 

■fc* " 

mangos have sold at forty cents a dozen. Trees 
slioiild have about thirty feet space ordinarily. 
Tliej do best in fiigh, welkiraiiied land. 

Ilie ntatifjoiiteen^ it is elaiined, has been tried 
wit]I success in the exti'eme south, but there is doubt 
as to the genuineness of the variety, Tlie true 
inaugosteen—^tlie Garcinla man^^ostana —is being 
planted iu Monroe and Dade Counties, and a few 
years more will decide; and many jxsrsons liavc 
large faith in the sneeess. The fruit is probably 
superior to the mango, which is praised so enflni- 
siastically by tropical writers, and is alxmt the size 
of an omnge, 

The 7nammee is a handsome tree, somewhat like 
the Mimtudiu- gritndtjio7*a. Its success in Sub¬ 
tropical Florida Ls well assured, having lieeii grown 
some years on the keys. JIow far u|> it can gt\iw’ 
remains to he proved, but the probabilities are 
against it above tlie subtrojiics. The fruit—some- 

r///; FLoiubA qf to-da r. 


thii MiaTiiiriee-apiile, and amo%^ tlie Span- 
iardn known ;is tlju j/iame ^—is round and brown, 
thrno to bIx iiicdiwsj in diamoUrj containing one to 
four needs, £w large as wahuitB, Biirroiinded liy a 
veJiow, juicy pid[», most delicious, and needing no 
ftc^piircd taste to be enjoyeti- Tbe Uiste is not n ri¬ 
ll ki; Uiu Eiprlent or sej miner pencil. The tree is a 
native of ibe Caribbeo Islands, and in Jamaica is 
Huid Pf 1 h! one of tbe largest and most valuable tini- 
[ptu-t reciH. 

T\ii^ ftff/foia is Ruijotciy like the inaui- 

nice, blit is rlllTeiH'iit in iin>st respeets* Tbe fruit of 
lids m oval, its longest diumeter from three to six 
indies. It has one hirgts, long seed in the center. 
The indp IS <*f a rich saffron-color and is described 
in terms of extiiivagHHit praise; it is called natural 
marmLihide, from its ix^nernblatice to inarimladc of 
(jiiiiKTS. The IrtH- is known in fwime loealiticu m 
the marinaladc tree. It is tbe rnanimma^ 

aiul in native in (Vntial Ainerkii. It is reported to 
liuve frviiled FiiceeKsfnlly oii tlio aoutbern keys; 
blit more time is needed to contirm the probability 
iluit it ^vill succeed in b'lorida. 

The ni'ortffio —corrupted into alll^jfdor 

yjrrfc, and by the Spaniards ]>opulai‘ly called tbe 
a native of the Wast Indies, and Las 



beei^ successfully [rrfj\\Ti a iiiiuibcr of yeanj in Sub- 
trojjical Florida, It is pcar^shapedj and from tliat 
alone appears to have received its misnomer of pear. 
Tropical-sea fidloi-s call it midslnpinairs butter. 
The tree is kno^vii to botanists as the IWsett fjf'a- 
tmi-ma. The taste for the fruit is ^unemlly an 
acr[iiired one; but, as in the case of most sueli 
friiita, the partiality for it is intense* It is a stojic- 
fiaiitj larf^e, j^reenisli-brown in color, witli jnilj) of a 
bri^lit yellow color, and taste uni^ne and of decided 
character. The tree is projiagated from tlie seed, 
and will usually fmit in atanit five years from tlie 
planting. The freeze of 1S3G interfered wltli the 
trees down to the bonndarydine of the sidjfmpics 
proper* It may he planted with safety anywhere 
within that subdivision* 

The mpotlilla is a native of Jamaica, and grows 
well on the Florida Keys and on tlie adjacent iiiiiin- 
land ; that is, in the subtropics. It is the 

and is called liy the Spaniards sapote. It is 
a handsome tree, and is propagated from the seed, 
fruiting in six or seven ye;u‘s from the planting, 
Tlie fmit is roiiiid, rusty l>ro’\ra, two or three inches 
in diameter, the taste being that of a rich, sweet, 
juicy pear, with gratiulate<J pulp and almond’shaped 
seed. The quality of the fruit is very high, equal 


PltIiu])b to tliJit of the iriaiigt) ■ and it is j>refcri e(l 
Uy many to that fruit It is very lianl to transport, 
from tlie fact that it needs to ripen on the stem in 
- order to l>e at its hesh Tlio ISSIJ freoise proved 
that the K^^(>ool^k can iiot l>c safely grown anyuhere 
nortii of the tsiditropieul Btj'ip. Jf. thrives at Ijake 
Wortli in Dade—latitude 40^—and was not 

liurt l>y tlie cold of 18SG, 

Of tlie niiinerou& family of tlie Aaonftfi four 
ajipear to liEive jirovcd enihioiitly sueecssfiiL in Knb- 
trojiical Florida, and some of them well up into tlie 
»<.eniidrojdcal tX'gioia Tlie four are the guanabeiiti, 
ehenmoyu, Piigarapple, and custard-apple- 

'J’liG fpifuiabf mif poj>ularly called sour-sop, is the 
Afiifftft mftnatffii a native of the A Vest indies. The 
fruit is deecrihed by the KeEusoner Rrotliei^ a.s “a 
large, green, jirickly fruit, six or eight inclies long, 
containing a soft, wliite, juicy i-udp, wliicli in fresh, 
won-rii>oncd Bpecimens is dclicions.” ^Ir, Gosse 
says it is ^"Inscionsly sweet and of a delightful 
acidity; often larger than a chihrs head; covered 
with ]uiekies,” It is the teiulerest of tlie Anotia^^ 
and can live only in the extreme southern rim of 


Florida and on the keys. The fniit sometimes 
weighs four potmds, and retails in the Key West 
fiuit^stores at sixty cents eucln 



TlkC f'/nrhnof/a i& tlie e/tcnifiolfa^ aiul 

in Key Wci^t is fi'cqncntlv called tlie -Taniaica ap¬ 
ple, and soinctiiiics c/i<rhtwyt/\ The fiiut ^'nnea 
in tji/e from that of an orange to six inches in di¬ 
ameter, It is a native of Penn ft wUl thrive onlv 
in the hu I (tropics. Dr. Soonianrn as (pioted bv Pro¬ 
fessor Wliitner, ssiys: The jdiieapple, the uiau- 
^osteen, aii'l the eheriniova arc considered tlie linest 
fruits in tlie ivorld. 1 have tastc<i tlieni in tlioso 
Icfealities in wliich tliev arc siipj)osc<l to attain tlieir 
lu^licst ])erfeetion — the pineapple in Guayaquil, 
the niaiiifosteeii in the Indian Archipelago, and the 
cherlnioya oti the slopes of tlie Andes—and if f 
were calle<l upon to act the part of Paris, I would 
without licsihitioii assign the a|j])le to the cherimov;n 
Its taste, iiifleed, surpasses tliat of every other fruit, 
and llaenke was right wlien he called it the master- 
piece of Nature.'’ 

The Hugar-apphi Is known to some as the 
Mpj and to others as the Amfi. Ih’ofessor 

Wliitner calls it tlie Aitona rdteuMa^ while the 
Ke;isouer (brothers catalogue it as the Ajwna 
7 tioH(i. It is much grown in Kev West, anrl has 
found its way into suhtrofiical regions genciidly, 
The tree is a shrnl) frequently, of very large si;;e 
generally in the extreme south, hut sniallcr farflicr 



north. Pnift.'ssor Wliitrier tlic fruit Xooka miicii 
a8 H rin^pboi'j'v would of tlio Baino with its do 
[irori.dori6 m if quikotL It Komotiiues grows to be as 
largo iis a muu'tj two lists, and is of a diirk-brown 
color. The pulji is of a ruddisb-yellow color, about 
the eoiisisteiice of custard, and exceedingly sweet; 

some tJiiiik it fm sweet Jt is tlie most ditKciilt of 
all these fruits to transport; and refrigeration is 
jK^rliaps tlje only way in which they can ever be 
got to the markets of the outside world. 

'14 1 C Ano/ia relic^tlata —is 

not t<j he confounded with the A. ijluhra^ or the 
\vild pon/i upjyh of Soiitli Florida* The former is a 
fine fniit, while the latter is utterly wortliless* The 
true is larger than an ap[)lc, or nearly 

as large aa an orange. In India it is printed very 
highly and cultivated with care; and for experiment 
(rare sUoulcl be taken to get the true fi’iiit. 

Yet other Fruits.—Besides the above-inontioned, 
there are a good many othei's that are on tnal in 
Florida, mai^y of tlicni with reasonable chances of 
success* Of these, some have a much larger area 
than tills State; some arc Ux> tropical to stand its 
chmiite; and some are of (tiiestionablo utility. 

Tlie fIttte-jMhn is a stately tree, haiideoine, Ori* 
cntal, and reaches, under the most favorable circuiQ' 



stjmcci?, about L'iglitj feet. It is in landst^ape 
clTi'ets fe the coeoaniiL It is the 

'B-j K. “ m 

Ufera of the botaiiistSj and bears fruit iu about 
ei^ht years. The matured tree is said to yield 
frojii three limidred to five hundred pounds of fruit 


u ye;ir, Tfiere aru datij [Xiliiis iii tbtj iiionantic g:\r- 
<leu of Jt-ily, said to lio over a tliousiiiid 

VLUTM old, Voii ]MLiller f^tutcfi that tr^iey fmin ono 
liiMidmi to two lnuidrt:<i yearw old continue to ]3ri>- 
duco tliciJ* animal crops of frtiit. The Kcasoiier 
]5rotliers vvrito that thm corninou diite-pidin has pro¬ 
duced fruit on (hiniberlsind Inland, Georgia, and in 

Augijsline for many yearrf, atnl is well adapted 
to the «oil rd Florida* it ordiiiarilj i-caciies the age 
of ten to twenty yeaJs befoi\.‘ ]irodueiiig fruit, but 
rare hiBtanceH are known of troee produemg fruit at 
three to four yeai'K. Bonic treo.s on laike Worth, in 


I >ade Coirntv, hort? frnli at seven yearn* The mar- 

Mf ^ 

ket valiu! of the date in i^'lorida is vet to be deti*r- 
mined. The fanilly of palins is a numerous one. 

'I’he is from both ludhi and Afi'iea, 

and is raised easily from sued. The Ileasoiier Broth- 
ers consider it more hardy than the guava ; and in 
Key West it is a eoininoii street tree* It has foliage 
like the acacia, the fruit being a legume or pod iti- 
clo-siiig a pleasant acid pulp and the seeds. The 
I'Ulp is excellent for preserve-s, cooling drinks, and 
medicine, bein^: rich in formic and but.vrie acid, and 
is jdcasaiit to eat as fruit. The tree sometimes at¬ 
tains the lieight of eiglity feet; and one tree over a 
foot in diameter near Manatee, in Manatee County 



—alioiit 30', (inIf siJe—was kilied by the 

freeze of 1880* 

Tlie lUfiiityritnaU —tlie Pkatteu gnirHiluin doubt¬ 
less—is aliout tlic size of a [>caeli-tree* Tbe fruit tjf 
the sweet variety is pka&aiit to eat. while tlie sour is 
tnore eoimuoitly used in making cooling aeid drinks. 
Tlie newly imported variety known as the Spanish 
Jlnby is add to be the iiuest of all the Punima. 
One writer suvs, *M>f all the fiiiits we have ever 
tasted in onr teinpomte diinate, the S[ranisli linby 
])oriiegi’aiiatc and the Adriatic fig are the two finest/' 
d'liis is a good gmwer and bouiitifid bearer; and 
the fruit si lips well, ripening in Deecniber. It will 
donl^tlesB do well all over Florida. 

The Spanish Umi is not of the citrus fauiily at 
Jill, but is the Mdivmm bijuga ; and the S]janiards 
call it momondlkh Tlie tree grows to the height 
(»f about thirty feet iti tbe West Indies, and would 
do well, no doubt, in Subti-ojiical Florida, but not 
north of that region, Tbe fruit is like a pliuu, yel¬ 
low, with pleasant pulp and eentral seed; and the 
seed is edllde, somewhat like a chestnut. The tn^e 
is Iiard to make live, and at first grows very 

The the Eriohotnja j^ipa7dc(t^ said by 

some to be the same as tbe 3lespilm j<f]}onica— 



f^rows to be about fiftyeafeut luglu Jt will grow 
in all parts <>i Florida, tlioiigb in some pkcc& it 
does but niodcrately well as a fruit-!learer. It grows 
readily from the seed, Tbe fruit is in elnstcrs, and 
is a!)oiit tfie size of a plum, with a thick skin of a 
(lull reddish color. The leaf is tough, lanceolate, 
having a briglit-grcen top and a brownisli velvety 
under side. It is Bouictiinetj called the Ja^an yned- 
litl\ * 

The Japan pirahumon^ or daU-plam^ is the 
kaku and is grown in all parts of 
Florida, The tree hears fruit frerpiently at one 
year (d age. The fruit is about two inches in di¬ 
ameter, and luLs the general ai^]>earanee of a smooth 
tomato, being of a bright-red eolor, deheions taste, 
and rij>ens in the antninn. The stone in the center 
is somewhat like an almond. The tree Is l>est pro]>- 
agated by budding or grafting. The tree has been 
siiccessfullv grown now so many years that itfi etand 
is well a-ssnred. 

The ahe is a native of Africa. Uotaiiists know 
it Jis the Hlifjhki mpkja. In Africa and India it 
seems to bo a large tree, hut in Florida rarely gets 
above ten feet in lieigbt. One writer describes the 
fruit as of the size and form of a small lemoti, some- 
ivhat ribbed, und, vvhen ripe, of a beautiful ver- 


I m 

iiiilwin color* fii t!ie \Vcst Iiulica, u'liero it gvowa 
^vcll, it riinliS witii the nectarine in qiiality of fruit. 
Ill fJiiinaiea it is usei] a veo:L‘tal>Ie, and cooked bv 
parboiling and frying; and, thus piejmred, is ]5opn- 
lai'lv known as vegetable inarrow* 

is a blundering name applied by the 
ignorant to perhaps half a ciczen differcMit and dis¬ 
tinct fndts* Professor Wliitner thinks the AHf>- 

<jf the Pacific islainls entitled to the 
name* Kingslev dcscnl>e.s the tree in these words: 
“ 1'hat awkward-bonghed tme, wit(i huge green 
fruit and dce]dy cut leaves^ one foot or more acrosSj 
Ls a hread-fniit tree*'^ Tlie fruit is oval, souietiines 
eight inches in dfanieter. Tliere are no seeds, and 
tlie farirnaceons pnlp may be eaten fresh, wlien it 
“resembles bread made with eggs.’’ When fiillv 
ripe it becomes sweet and resembles clatniny cake. 
An Englisbnian writing from India says that sliced 
and fried it seemed to him hanlly distmguisliahle 
from excellent battcr-pndding. ilartwig informs 
his readers that theiie are wliole islands in Pohmesiu 
tliat depend for food upon tins bountiful bearer of 
fndt-vegetables for several montlis in the year. In 
Honduras the leaves are said to be hv actual inoas- 
iircment two feet wide by tlirec in length. In 
I'lorida this ivondcrful tree, with its more wonder- 



fill friiitj lias not VL't boon grown witlj full *iiceoss; 
Init iMij'rieiy-rnoii are offorhig it for eule, and experi- 
inonts now in progrosti will ass>iirodly liottle the quea- 
tioii witlilii the next few yearsi. Jt ia, however, 
naoleaa to apctid titne with experitnentiiig above the 
aouthorn yiilitropico, 

(*ucai/ was so highly esteemed by LiniuoiLs that 
ho gave it tlie striking name of Ih^ohroma—i^oA 
for a god. 'hho Mexicans eall it thfjL<du% whence 
the Knglisli wor<l clwailaU, It is fotuid in most 
ttN>pleaI cmintrieK; and rrofessor Wliitner holds that 
it is highly ppohahlo that it will aiiceecd in the siil> 
Irojiies of Florida. The “American Cyclopaedia’* 
ilescrihes the cavno as an evergreen, jn'oduciiig fruit 
and llowers throughout the year* Jf unchecked it 
tit tains a height of alioiit thirty feet, and resemblce 
in siKij and slia[K! a black heart cdiorry-tree* The 
leaves aix^ gniooth and oblong, tei'ininating in a shaj p 
point. The fruit iv&ombles a short, thick cucumber, 
live or six inches long, and throe and a luilf inehes 
in dhiTnoter. It contains from twenty to fortv" 
beans. These are arranged in a pnlp of a jnnkUh^ 
wliitc color, in five turns. Their si^e is about that 
of a sweet almond, but thicker. In Fojitral Americii 
the fruit is iniicli larger, being from seven to nine 
inches in length and three to four Inches in diaine- 



ter, and contsiiia from forty to fifty seeds, lii tlie 
West hidia Islands and in Uemenira it is &o small 
as to contain only from six to fifteen seeds. Tbe 
rind of the fruit is smooth, thick, tnu^h, and taste¬ 
less. Tlie pulp whicli incloses the bean is a sweet, 
Blij'litly acid substance, something like that of the 
water-melon, and is used for food. The fruit ma¬ 
tures ill June and Deceuiber, The beans wlien 
separated from the pnlp and dne<l in the sun 
are ready for market. The shell is of a dark- 
lirown color, and furtiishea the coeoa-sllulls of com¬ 
merce. The 'seeds j leld by expression an oil that 
is very nutritious, and acts as an anotlyiie. All 
the eaeao-land in Florida lies, donbtlese, in Mon¬ 
roe County, 

The dunan is a native of the Malay jieninsiila, 
and in ita habitat grows to be eighty feet higli; und 
it is very doubtful if it eau be snccessfully gr<iwn 
anywhere in Florida, although some have faith in 
the experiments now making with it. The fruit is 
oval in ehaj^e, and ten inches in its longest diameter. 
It has a thick rind, covered wuth strong and liard 
prickles. It is divided into live cells, eacdi contain¬ 
ing from one to four seeds, as large as a pigeon's 
egg; and surrounding these is the edihle pnlp, 
which is delicious, and of a cream-colon A full- 

17 ^ 


f>i'aring tree will prothieo two Jiiindred durians a 
year. It is propagated from seed. 

Tlie or yaek-f ruit^ kuoH'ii to botariists 

[IS the AHamrjnifi is from India; and 

its siiceese even in e.xtrenie Soiitli Florida is l>v no 

means yet assured. Firmingerj s|x?akiiig of tins fniit, 

calls it “one of the largest in existeuccj and an ill- 

shapen, somcwliat oval-forpicd, unattnictive-looking 

fruit. Tlio interior is of a soft, tibrous consistcjie}"^ 

witli the eilible portions scattered liere and there, 

JJy those wdio can manage to cat it, it is considered 

most de lie ions j |>ossessing tlie rich, spicy scent and 

tlavor of the mclonj bnt to sncli a powerful degree 

as to be <juitc unbearable to those unaccustomed to 

it,” Tfie situation of tlie fruit is said to vary with 

the Eige of the tree^ being first home on tlie 


braiiehes, tlicii on the trunk, and in old trees oti 
tlie roots. Those borne on the root&j wliicli discover 
themselves hy the cracking of tlie eartli above them, 
luv lield in liiirliest estimation. 

T1 le kuf'OJida^ which is the ear'andas^ 

is somewhat like the damson-pluin. The tree is 
smaih and the fruit contains a nnmher of smali 
seeds, Tlic fruit in India, the liahitat of the tree, 
matures in August and September, It has not been 
tried in Florida, and some hope for it^s success tliere. 



The lichee — Nephclium liclti—\s an Eivst Itnlia 
true, and friiit-grows in Soutli Su!)tro[>iL*al Kloriiia 
mean to give it a trial there. The fruit is of the 
size of a large plum, and grows on a filirnh. It is a 
spring fruit, ripening in May. One admiring writer 
says of the pulp of the liehcc that it is ‘‘as delicious, 
perhaps, as tliat of any fruit in existence,” and re- 
eciiiblcs tliG white of B plovers 
stone in tlic center. The tree is i^ipagatcd fruni 

the fioexL 

TJie pa2)av.\ Ijotatucally cnllod Catica jmpayu^ 
grows well generally tbronghout Subtropical Flor- 
ichij but does not rmk as a iirst-clas^, fruit. The 
wild variety, indigenous ijj tbe State, is not to be 
confounded with the finer variety grown for its 
fruit. Tiic stalk—it is not a tree—attains tlie lieigbt 
of twenty-five feet at its best and in the extreme 
south, but it often bears good fmit wlieii less fliaii 
ten feet high, it has no brandies, but a erown of 
leaves, among wbieh tbe papaws grow. The fruit is 
a good deal like a ninsk-niehm, wdth a diameter of 
from three to six inches, ribbed on tlio outside, of a 
(lull orange color, having a rind thick and fleshy, 
witli a mass of hlack seeds inside. It is eaten raw, 
and tastes remotely like a nuLsk-inelon. The stalk, 
Professor Whitucr states, “abounds wdth a milky, 



[>itl:cr juice, ^vhich containsa principle vvliicli^ 
witli this sole known exception, belongs to tbeaninuii 
kingdom, A few drops of tliis juice mixed witli 
^vElte^ will in a few niiniites, it is saidj render tough 
meat very tender, Tlic sjime effect is pro<liieed by 
wrapping the niojit up in a leaf and keejiing it so 

Tile 7tuDfte(f has not been fully tried in Florida, 
bat many believe that it will do well there. It is 
the Jrii(Fmw; and the tree grows to 

the heiglit of twenty or thirty' fuet, and looks 
wnnething like a j^ear’trce. The leaves are tive 
or six inches long and j)oiiitcd, in color of a 
<lecpj dark green. The fruit is desenhed as jxiar* 
sha[ied, a!)OUt the size of a peach, consisting of a 
tlcsliy pericarp, vsdiicli on ripening breaks open into 
two nearly cfpial valves, ex|>osing the seed and its 
appendages. This exterior part of the fruit i& 
about iin inch thick, yellowish brown, with an as¬ 
tringent juice. In collecting the crop tins is thrown 
away. The tree Ileal's in eight years from the 
seed, rcaclios its full bearing in fifteen 3^ears, and 
will continue bearing about eiglity. Tfie average 
yield of a tree is tive pounds of nutmegs and one 
pound and a half of mace^—the &ub&tance envelop¬ 
ing the seed. 


I i:> 

—ihe Ambica —i.< iTceruntiieiidi'd bv 

i^rofe^or ^\ Jiitinjr fur trial in yon them Fluriilji. Jt. 
wat! [>)aiiteil several veai^ ago on the ilatiiUee River 
liy Ml’S. Atzoi utl), Eirui on Luke M'ortli Tjv ifr. S[k?ii- 
cer. Tbe funner slmihs were killed to the grouinl 
liy the fi'ceze of but have ??]>ionte<l up again. 

Tlie latter were not hin-t hv the same freeze* Eoth 


plantings have yielded fniit —or berries—but they 
have nut taken eolTee from the list of ixot-flemmi* 
HirnUxI productive crops for Florida. It is propa¬ 
gated from the seed. Tlie fruit when ripe is red 
and rc‘seinbies a cherry, and the flesh fiiirrounding 
tlio two seeds is sweetish and nithcr palataide. 

2\a has been grown in Xorth Florida for a 
gnofl many years. It will glow hi several of t!ie 
8outhorn States. 

There reniahi tn be mentioned yet others: 

The olit^ej whieli is on trial and is expected to 

The .f/y, whieli grows and fruits in grt^af lux- 
nrianec in all parts of the State, but notably in the 
noithern tier of counties* 

The wiiich does well in Northern Flor¬ 
ida, csfjccially the Peen-To and ivliieh ^411 

probably do well all over the State—2,000 erates 
shipped from Waldo this year. 



Tlie f/uincej some varieties of wJiieli, especially 
the Chvum atid tlie oratif/ey do well. 

Tlie apph^ a few vuiietiois of wliicli Ijave pro\X'd 
iiieasiirablv stieeessfiil in Xortlierii Florida ; iui<], 

The Uie Zist/p/fi(f^ Jtrpfha —a whole- 

#50100 fridt from Jiidia, wliicli ought to bu tried 
more tliorouglily tliaii Ijas yet been done* 

In acklithm to all tbe^sc tliere are the nuts inanv 
of wliicIi have a degree of coniinereial iinjiortariee* 
Among iliese are the pecaOj tlie almond^ and tlie 

The jff'mn has been grown succe.^fuily now 
Hevcnil years in Northern b'lorida, and is on trial 
in both tlie other sections; and in a few years it will ajipcar that It will thrive in all 
parts of the State* It is tlie Cttpt/a olintftjrmhf 
tJie liest and most prolific variety of whielij for 
Florida enlfivationj seems to ]>e the hu'f/e liurmj 
Init the pajyer-s/iell meets the wislies of many* 
The tree is a large, handsome one, and wants a rich, 
welkiraincd soil. 

The ai?fiO?id—g\yQu by tlie Beasoner Urothcrs 
as tlie <^atappa —is common hi Key 

AVest and on some of the other keys adjacent. A 
few good specimens have hecii grown as far mirth 
as Manatee and Lake M^orth^aud they jiroinise welL 



Tlic tlic rm/, ivhit‘li 

grows in Eiiglfind in sheltered tnnl in favor- 

able portions of France; wliieli oiiglst to Jo well in 
tbe fcsouthoni States geneiully atiJ especially in 
Xortlicni Florida. Tbe tree is t^vcnt^■ to lliirtv feet 

I- V 

Iiigli when well grown^ the fruit being a stone frnit 
or Jnj[>e about the si/.e of sni olive, Tlie seed or 
nut is about an incli long, <.>f a greenUh color wlien 

The iiiriiv:bert‘*j may not he rnore prolific and 
line ill Florida than in some other Stiites, but the 
fact that it matures there earlier than anvwhere 


farther iiortli makes it an important article arnong 
the fruit prctdiiethms of that State. The most jiroJit- 
able results can be got by stniwlserry'eultiirc in the 
subtropics, for the reason that the 1 jerries can Ije 
ripened there liefore those from liiglier latitudes 
can reach tlie markets. The subtropical fruit tan 
he put into the Xew York market fully a niontli 
earlier than can that from the nortlieni jjurts of the 
State ; but, at the .same tiniCj fewer varieties will 
thrive in tlie extreme senth, Sulisoil irrigation is 
destined to work important changes in this crop. 
At Daytona, in Volusia (.bounty, on tlie Atlantic 
coast—latitude 2'j® 10'—this iirigatiun has been 
tried with phenomenal eaicces-s; and the iinlicatIona 



are iliat in tliis wav all tlie drawbaekr^ in tlie soiitli 


eaii l)c overcoinCj aiul the iKnries j^rowii and ma¬ 
tured at tbe will of the ;i:rower-^iri December lis 
well as in Kebrnarv. ^\dth present appliances, 
strawberries can lie feathered in damiary, anywliert^ 
ill the snbtmpies, and a fortniglit to a month ialer 
in tlio higher regions. Subsoil irrigation can iiuike 
bulb iippi'ceiably earlier, niiittiring tlie very earliest 
for market in December if desired* All kinds of 
tlie berry, it seems, do well in the northorn tier of 
eoimties. For the extreme south liorticulturists 
j’eeoiiniiend the Kuinin or Charlestoii Seedling, and 
]JCrhaps the Bid well, as least likely to burn- On 
t he St. Job ids Kivor a eonmion return is about 
2,(>00 quarts to the aere, u hilc in Clay {iiid tJads- 
ileu yields of from d,{KiO to 8,000 quarts to the acre 
liave been reported. Stiiiwberrics have frequently 
sold for $3.5U a quart in New Yoj'k in winter, and 
in early spring for $I a quart. From Mandarin 
on tlie St* -lolnds last year there were sliijjped Norfh 
50,000 quarts, and these sold at from to 
cents a quart, tlie tut average of tlie wliole being 
i25 cents a quart 

Tobacco, — This crop baa foi' many years—^in 
faet, ever since its beginning in el aimed a 

fair measure of public attention; but in the Int^t 



fow A jjreiit deal lias been done in tins di- 

rectron^ In 1S5<) tlio tobacco ert?]) was 

pounds^ the greater part of Avbleb was grown in 
(ladHdeii County. The en>p increased gnidinilly 
until the war, smil then fell otf nipidly. and re¬ 
mained vei'V snial] until tlie inenbus of reconstnie- 
tion was lifted from the Btate in l>Td, since whidi 
time a (piickeiiing of tins industry vvitli most oth¬ 
ers has set in. The *’ Floritla ToUieco Plant’’ pre¬ 
dicts that llie preser^t year's [>lanting will be COUt^ 
acres, and that the emp will he pndialdy betw'ceii 
IsOOOjOOO and lj500,0i)0 poniuls of flic tiucst tobac¬ 
co—this mostly m Gadsden, Culnmbia, Leon, and 
Snwannee Counties, Gadsden still aliead of all oth¬ 
ers. A i>ronnnent business man now engjiged in 
tobacco-cult lire predicts that there will Ijc in a feiv 
years 100,acres plaiitetl. 

A company has been formed recently—the Flor¬ 
ida Tobacco Producing and THiding Gonipany— 
and its agents have bought lands in (Tsidsden t-oun* 
ty. They planted last spring a thousand acres, jmt- 
ting out about six miilioii tohaeeo-jilauts. Suiiie of 
the varieties planted yield bdu pminds of fine fo- 
baeco to the acre, and others will yield frtmi l,{lh0 
to 1,500 j>ouiicl3- 

Aiiother enterprise is starling in C'olumbia 



County, A Mr, V. A. GoiiKale;5 has Ikjcii three or 
four years engaged in growing tine tobaccos there, 
and decides that Florida is Ixitter tJian Cnba for the 
hnsiriess, Tlic experts with their families are ex- 
l^eeted soon to occupy the place. Beyond doubt 
tliere are fortunes in this business, esjiccially tlnis 
cojnlncted by experts in all its hranclies, Tliese 
men liavc all the advantages of generations of 
skilled business men—men ecpial to tliosc cnlth at- 
iiig the famous Yiielto Abajo district in Cuba^ wlio 
l>iil fair to transfer tlie fame of that favored region 
to X or them Florida, Cuba has proved herself, as a 
tobaeco^produc'ing land, equal to Sumatra; and now 
Flonda bids fair to snatch tlie crown from botli. 
Mr. Gonzalez lias been oilered sixty cents a laoiind 
for the tobacco just grown, but declines to sell, and 
prn])uses to manufacture it- 

The soils in Florida especially suited to tobacco 
ii\v comparatively limited in arcii, however; and 
this fact must be kept in mind. 

Tlie [>lienonienally large yield of line tobacco in 
Florida is the best as^iui'anee that that is a vitally im* 
portant field for revenue. The average yield is over 
r>00 pounds to the acre, and 1,500 pounds to tlie 
acre is counted as possible. More tlian this figure 
ha.s been grown in Florida. Xoiv, wlien 000 pounds 



of tobiioco, wonli from fortv to sixty cents a pound, 
can IjG grou'ii as an average crop, surely a grand 
ftiture is before the tobaaco'Ciilturist 

Tlie inaniifiictiire of tobacco in Florida is ati in¬ 
dustry well established and developing with ro- 
rnarkalile speed. The climate is exceptionally well 
aduj’ited to cigar-making. Thoi'c are now between 
20(1 and ciffiir-fuctoi'ies in Florida, nesirlv all 
using Cuban leaf; but when Fh^rhla can grovv tlic 
leaf as well as iiieli in fact lire it, the profits will be 
vastly increased. The nunihcr of cigars now nianii- 
factni’ed in the State is just S7,2ii 

liecent e^penments in J>Eido and t'oiinties 
prove beyond question that the extreme south is 
very well adapted to tliis industry. One writer 
claims tlnit in these counties l,2ri0 pomuls to tiie 
acre can he prodncecL 

It is obvious, accordiiifjlv, that the above facts 
and considerations show that both Noi them Florhla 
and the extreme south are well, and equally well^ 
suited to tlie growing of firsUjiiality tohace^j; jirovc 
beyond all reasonable doubt that the wliolc State is 
admirably a<lapted to the eultivatioii of tho weed, 
There are edaimed to he nearly 201) factories in 
Key West, employing )^,000 operatives, and doing a 
business of §5,000,000 a year. Some experts are 


THE FLOniDA or to-ijav. 

Kild Ui rruike $2^0 a n’lnntli. Tlie amount disbursed 
by tlic factories alone is ^iven as ^2,500,000 a.jcar. 

Cotton.— A moil flic productions of the State, 
cotf<m ranks seeamb iuinlier being iirst in value. 
Tlie cotton is Ijotli long-staplc or tHsi-island, and 
sborl-ftliiple or nplantl. The former is ]>y far tlie 
more imjiortarit. 

Of tills long-staple, the Florida cro]j of IS8T was 
bags, while that of Ocorgia was 0.411, and 
that cjf St>iith (’arolina was T,7:15 ; an aggregate 
American ci'f^[» of 4o,i?J7 bagw* These arc the esti¬ 
mates Ilf Ale.xander A: ( o., and show that Florida 
proiliices nuH'e than two thirds of t!ie Aiiicriean 
crop. Tlie bag weighs about ?Jy0 yioniuls. Texas 
at i>iie time tried the eroj), but gave it up, leaving 
now but tlie lliree States named producing this cot¬ 
ton. Tlie itiaiii markets for tlie long-staple are Ba- 
vaunab and (Ijarlcfiton. At tlie close of tlie war 
(Iroat rSritain mamifactnred pi'acticall}- all the crop; 
but tmdav the Amcneaii mills spin nearly a half of 
it ; that is, 20,515 bags against 25,2If?. Florida 
eould easily double its present crop if the means 
ami rcsoiiR'Cs were ]>roperlv directed, A lai'gc 
inanufactory cstablislicd at home—and such a one 
is under considertiun by pnictical business men—^ 
would speedily develop tins maximum capacity, and 



al the eaTiie time etiliaueo the pnce^ of llio ma¬ 

The filiort fitaplc oi’ iiplatid cotton of Klorulii 
amounts to about 30,1)00 bales of GOO jiotiiids. Tills 
will be the rival of tobacco, as tlie regiou gmwiu^ 
the latter is tlie same as tliEit of the former, to a 
great extent at least—the Xorth Florida counlry. 
One advantage that Florida has. over tliu otlicr 
Ehort-staple producers is that of luiving earlier sea¬ 
sons, and coneef|ueiitly earlier mips, wliicli come 
into market while priees are better. Another ad¬ 
vantage is the superior quality of the more southern 

The aggregate value of the cotton erfijj has betii 
estimated at nearly !?4,000,00(h 

Silk*—In the list of the texlile fabrics of Florida 
silk follows cotton, not so much for what has been 
actually aceem^dislied as for the well-assured future 
that seems before it. As in tlie case of grapes for 
wine, the esperimeiit in silk has been earefully, 
intclligentlj, and suecessfully made liy a competent 
expert from abroad* ifr, C. fh (Vmtini, an Italiaik 
silk-grower of ability ami experience from Lom¬ 
bardy, known to silkdmsineijs men as the befit center 
for silk ill the world, came four years ago with his 
own variety of worm-eggs, setlled in Florida, and 



IiaB ^rowii silk of t!ie fir^t qiinlstv and in sneb qiian* 
tity to indicate quite el^^rirly tliat Florida is one 
of the best jdacoH in tlje world for Bilk-eulhire; this 
on account oi both soil and climate. He finds 
already in FloJ ida, and c:i«ily propagated Co any de¬ 
sired cxterit^ tiie best ninlberi'ies for tills purpose— 
the white imilberrv or cdhfi. and the 

if ' 

7 utdfwntdiM^ wl]ieli lias a lilstory in America, lilr. 
(’oTitiiii liolds that the alLa is far better than tbe 
others, especially for tlic Bontheni counties, because 
the sun liner leaves are tenderer. These trees arc 
tlie ones iiserl in Lombardy, They slionld he 
planted not closer than two lmn<lred to the acre. 
Other iindlierrics lire used to feed silk-worms, such 
ns the liiissinii with SJimll. leaves, the Jforus Jripon- 
/rff, nu<l the black or wild riiulberry; but the silk 
yielded is stringy and colorless. In Oliio osage- 
oraijge leaves, and even white salad and lettuce, arc 
sometimes fed to hungry worms; but the cocoons 
tints fed are of no value. 

The climate of Florida is equal to that of Italy, 
and lietter than that of France, in being more equa¬ 
ble and temperate; the south of the State being 
better than the north of it for the same reasons, 
d'he mnulier of crojjs a year increases with tlie 
better climate. Perhaps two crops a year north of 



Sanford and tliree sontli of tliat line may be grown; 
but exi>ci'iinent lias not gone far enough to estiiblii;li 
any very rlefiiiite rule njion that point. 

Tt takes intelligent iiinl pei'scveriiig eirorts to 
command success in this as in all other ntidertakings; 
blit with these Mr, Ooiitiiii holds (bat sericulture 
may be made the most profitable industry in the 
Stute—better than orangc growiiig, in yielding inoiv 
profit witli less wateliing, risk, and expense tiic year 
roimd. It takes two to four years to get well 
started^ fiowever. Feebler hands can <lo most of 
the work^ too; and a man with a growing family 
can make from §1/100 to §1,300 a crop, six weeks 
to a cro])j and make two or three ctojis a ycaj\ 
according to locality and latitude, and (he cnrrcmt 
expense need not be above a third of that income. 

A com[>any has been organ!ml in Jacksouville 
to push forward tins attractive industry. Tliey jim¬ 
pose to grow silk, and to buy in ail that produced 
throiigbout the State; audj as soon as the induGtry 
is on its legs, establishments for the iiianufacture— 
reeling, sjihming, and weaving—of silk fabrics will 
be etarted. Tliey are ])kmt]iig out Borne 300 acres 
in 2lorm jiiulticaulw, that being acce|jt(Ml aa the 
best—the most largely silk-prudiieing for that 
latitude and climate. In the mannfai-ttiring depart- 



mentis tlierfi will be itujji'ovecl tniR'bmerVj beginning 
w[th tlie reding and ending with the eompletod 

Tlie fsingle thread of an oi diriarilj good cocoon is 
alioiit a niile in length. It fakej^ about live pounds 
of eocooiiK to ]U'odiiGe one |>otirid of I'eclcd raw silk, 
T1 le tliread of good silk is icrv sti'ong, and the 
color a deep straw Hbadc. 

Following silk, ^rith a long interval, hgweverj 

which as raw fiber U worth iu Florida 

^^80 a toll. 

iSiSfff one of the agaves^ toward the culti¬ 

vation of wliifh only spasmodic elTorts have been 
made, and next, to nothing has restiltcd. 

*/tfh% incixily among the possibilities of the 
future; and 

Ib/m?, a native ornamental feature which may 
have an economic; nee when scores of other veins 
liave hetm esliau.sted. 

Lumber,“By all odds tlie iinportaiit pro¬ 
duction of Flondii indiistriesj recktuied in dollars 
:iud cents, is lumber. It has been reckoned at five 
tlme.'5 the value of the cotton-crop, or nearly 
twenty tnillioii dollars, luit that is manifestly ex- 




Tlic chief item is the yellow piiiCj next cypm s, 
and then eedarj oak, walnut, elierry, jnui]ier, 
nuHa, liiekory, beech, willow, hay, and so on to the 
end of the chapter. Of yellow [i-iiic tlicre is an 
area of some 20,00!) square tiiiles. The suj^eriority 
of this over all other pines as luuibcr is well known 
to builders; and liouscs covered with winteiMnit 
shingles of cypress will hist foity years, and for 
many other iMiilding juirpnseft this wimd lias woie 
dei‘fiiny staying properties. The cedar-factories at 
Cedar Keys yield imineiii^c supplies in t.lie way of 

Professor A. IL (hirtiss, as botanist nurler tlie 
CTeneral (Toveniment, explored the Wlafe and uiatle 
some very vakialdo am I interest tag rej>orts embody* 
ing his liest. revsults. lie classes a« trees ail plants 
having solid, woody stems .is much as four inches in 
diameter, grow ing erect, or nearly so, and withont 
support. The mitnher stated lie finds tn be forty- 
seven per cent of all the trees of the Cnitccl States, 
and a half more than foiiml in any otlier State. lie 
givcB a list of uses, witli tlie trees adiqded to each 
respectively. This list embraces about cjne half of 
the Florida trees given in Ids genei-al catidogne. 

Professoj' CiirtisiS^s list here follow's, consisting of 
thirtv-five uj-cs and about one hundred trees: 



(CUV \ y 



Af/ricnltnml /mj}lemetitA —lied and [dg^iiut 
liickorj-j white ni\d green ash, white, overeup, an<l 
eliestmit oak. 

—Red iilckory, pig-nut liickorv^ foiiglii 
wJiite oak, swamp eliestriut-ouk* 

Broom-lfand/fjfi ,—White bay, tiipelo, 
Builduif/.^yoT geneml eonsti'iietion a large 
variety of woods may be used, but pine is found 
most convenient, cnonomleal, and gcmenilly satisfae- 
tory. For all work that is exiiosed to the weather, 
either long-leaved yellow or pitch pine should be 
used. The latter serves almost, jib well for framing 
timbers, but for sills is not so dnnihle. For sheatEj- 
ing and inside work generally Bliort-leaved yellow 
and loblolly pine may lie UBeth 

CabiiiH-it'ork and Juiratfare. I^l|dar, iiuig 
iiolia, wldte cypress, curly pine, birch, l>cech, chest* 
mit, white uak, black walnut, red hjiy, wliite and 
green, ash, sweet-gum, cheny', red and sugar triajde, 
liolly, lohlollv bay, cliina-berrv* and many of the 
subtropicid woods. For cheap fnrniturt!:, silver ina- 
|>le, hack berry, sycariioie, linn, and pine are used, 
Can^^s .^0 rai igc, enilj wood, pr i 11 cewuod, U nt:! i - 
wood, palmetto, royal palm. 

—Bittcr-nut hickory, white elm, mnl- 
ben*y, dogwood, sassafras, box-elder, cypress, jimi- 


per, and various oaks, nanielv, tlio wkite, poet, 
cliestniit, scarlet, black, nod red* 

Kftijrax'erF IHmks ,—1 >o;rwof. 

Fmcing^—Var posts or mils tlio following trees 
are preferred: Black ey(>re3S, red cedar, juoiper, 
yellow pine, post-oak, chestiHit'Oak, white oak, 
uvereiip oak, willow, liornhcain, chestnut, caUlpa, 
mnlherry, hooeydoctist, aassafms, slippery elm, 
hack berry, 

p'loaU. —peio. 

y'7</o>7'/#jy,^ J'roljably no wood is equal for thia 
purpose to the lorigdcaved yeliow pine- Where 
this is not ol^tainable, white elfit, sugar-raaple, etc., 
may he Uf^ed* 

P\nL —Most of the pines, oaks, and liickories 
alTord e.xcclh'iit fuel ; also hecch, sugar-maj>le, mag¬ 
nolia, black titi, etc. In Southern Florida the 
wo(xlri most used for fuel are the button-wood, 
Jainai(;a ilogwood, cnibwood, and torch wood. 
ij u n-SUf?:h. — Ked in a pi e, 1 >1 ack wa 1 n u t, 
/nUrhr — The kinds of wood best 

adapted to inside ornamentation are curly pine, I'ed 
bay, wliite and green ash^ sugar-maple, clierry, box- 
elder, black walnut, w-hite oak, juniper, magnoHit, 
and poplai'. 

Li^ Xi /'m. J on I beam, i r on ^cood. 



Medifyirial Tlieee are afTtirtled hj tlie 

elierrj% dogwood, white buy, willowj sass;d‘nu'i, (ieor- 
gill barkj prickly a^5li, poplar, slippery eltn, white 
oak, aud by a miinhcr of the siilitropical trees. 

Oar ^<.—White and gro^ii asfi. 

Black-gill 11 , sassafnis, black hireli, 
svcuiriore, bitter-niit hickory. 

w * 4 < 

Papet^-J^nlj }.—Ciitton wood, liniij l iox-elder. 

PetiCtls .—Red cedar* 

Pthift. —Paliuctto, yellou' and jiitch [dnc, bhu k- 
gntn, iiiaiigrovo. 

Pailwfiif Ti^H ,—Black eypress, juniper, yellow 
[>irio, chestnut, post-oak, white oak, slippery elm, 
mulberry, eatalpa. 

Pollf TS and lieavltujH (tf Black- 

guiri, dogwood, sourwood, 

Suddle^TrecH .—White elm, sugar'tnaple. 

Shingles. —CyproBH riinks the host, juniper sec¬ 
ond, and yellow pine is large]y need. 

Ship and Jlont Iluilding. —Wliite, ovcrcup, and 
live oak, yellow pliio, cypress, juniper, po[)Iar, ituiI- 
berry, white chn, Rugar-iiun>lc* Of South Florida 
woods: Jamaica dogwood, mahogany, luastic, wild 
tamarind, and ink wood, are favorite kinds* 

StigaMnapIe, persimmon, beccln 

Sh —Pel's! iuti 1 on* 



Tannimj Harh .—Tlie iiiangroTe atifords nioet 
tannin, but tlic kiiids mo*t used are tljc black aud 
red oakfi, and the tan or loblolly hay* 

Tobacco- iloxcs .—Sycaiii ore, 

7\)ol- Handies a nd I Han e - Stocks .—I lo r u be am 
and iron wood, red and pig uiit liickory, beech, per- 
Kininion, Bourwood, sloe, spark I cherry. 

Wagons and i'arckojes. —White and green ash, 
red uiid ]ug nut hiekoiy, poplar, and linn ; white, 
post, and overcup oak, 

Wheel-Slock. — White elm, slippery elm, and 
oaks of various kindB; Imbs being made of red ebn, 
black-giun, dugwoofl, and honey-locust, 

Wmden Shoes .—Tupelo, black birch. 
Woodenvmrc.-^ViMii^ ivoplar, white bay, juniper, 
black lord I, tupelo, tupelo-gum, hox-dder, red 

Rice.— Botli varieties—lowland and uplaud^^are 
growti in various paits of the State, but mainly for 
liuine use. Seventy liushele to the acre is a good 
crop, but i\ hundrud bushels has l>ecn reported ; 
wliile twcnt\’-tive coutent some of the thinner-soil 


cultivators. Tiie Okcceholxje country yields very 
fine crops whon conditions are favorable. Some 
account of tlie erojis in the newly drained I'egioii 
will be found in tlie jjages on Dramage. The 



U, S. Census of 1S80 gives Floridii credit for rais¬ 
ing l,294jG77 pounds of rice* Professor Curtises, 
one of the Lost iiiforjned men in tliu State, writes ; 
“ We take it tkat riee produetion in Florida may be 
rcganled as a promising but uiidos’cloimd iiidiislry, 
and therefore a latent source of wealtli. So fai 'm 

we kuoWj there is nothing needful to bring it Into 
favor and render it a staple enjp in every county, 
except facilities for *iiiilliiig’ it, so that it may, 
wdtliout too much expense, be placet! on the niarkut 
in prime condition.” To this lie adds : “ Tlie fact 
that Florida Inus no rank in the market as a I’ice-pro- 
duciug State signifies notldTig. Seven yeai-s ago 
Louisiana did not produce for export a hiisliel of 
rice. Seven vears ai^o the litvt rice-mill was Imilt 
in that State. Yet tiie statistics show that Louisi¬ 
ana’s rice-croi) for the ecEUion of 188b-87 ^vas one 
half greater than the coinhincd rice crop of South 
Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia, ^liiy it not 
be said of Florida seven years hence that her rice- 
crop exceeds that of all the other States? That un¬ 
doubtedly is among the possihilitics.” 

Sugar.—Sugar-cane grows well in all jKirts of the 
State, especially in the semth; the farther south the 
hotter* Sixty tons of it has Iseen grown to the 
acre. On the Caloosahatchee River a farm of fifty 



acrt-a lias grmvTi t^iuo ei gilt yiiiai's, tlio caiiG ra tt own¬ 
ing every yajir, auti hiis iiottecl an acre fur t>ev- 
eml years. F’uir lauds will jirtKliuse from IjoOO to 
2,091) pounds of sugar a year; and rieli lauds, thor¬ 
oughly fertilized, will yield froJU 2,000 to 4,000 
pounds, TJie dnduiug of tlie OkcediolKJc region 
promises to furnish a large addition to the sugar- 
la nd« of the State* 

Upon tlsc matter of rattooning, Mi\ Barbour, in 
ids “ Florida for Tourists, Invalids, and Settlers,” 
says, am informed that on thci lauds of Indian 
liiver lias becu rai.sed tlie nineteenth crop of cane 
from the same jdaiiting, and on the shore of Lake 
Worth cane is now growing wliicb has not Ijoen 
replanted since the early ludiaii wars.” This readi- 
ues.s to rat toon in-ikes the crot> far less ox]jensive, bo 
long as good rot urns continue* 

Orainss — Florida can hardly he coi^sidei‘ed a 
grain country, although some of tlie grains do 
very well there ; Imt, generally, in such places 
other crops do phenomenally well, so that there 
is no special object in develojiing the grain in¬ 

Grain does better in Northern Florida than it 
does in the extreme south* Corn does excellently 


well in the fonuer region. Tlic yield upon poor 



laml, with *‘craekci'’^ fultivatioDj U fr^:ini tm 
up to twenty perhaps ; bill lutelli^eut and Jndieums 
cultivation can always make good yields. (Jovenior 
Drew is reported to have raised 130 husliels of corn 
on coin moil jiincdaiid in 1ST8» 

^V^heat, oats, and rye are grown iti Noitlieni 
Florida verv iiuich as they are in the JSoutherii 

4 * 

States generally. Very little is sowin iiEirley is 
BLddotn seem 

Cattle*—d’l le stock business is carried on mostly 
in the south—fSeini-trojuciil anil Subtropical Flor¬ 
ida—below 20^ ; but cattle are niised atnl do well 
all over the State, Breviird County taking tlie lead 
botli in number and (jiiaiity of stock* 

The aggregate nundjor of cattle is fuit l>y Mi'* 
P* O* Knightj of Lee County, at 25ft,OfKi, and the 
toL'il value at 81,250,(11)11. Mr. J. Sul win Tait, of 
St Augustine, author of ^"Tlie Cattle-Fledtis of the 
Far in a paper roeeiitly puhlblied, puts the 

cattle of Florida, exclusive of dieep, at 13,515 
head, and their value approximately at 8b,Od(>,000* 
Tlie annual eales he reckons at 147,OOf) heinl, real¬ 
izing, at 814, over 82,1100,000 a year, lie tllinks 
thsit Florida lias, in tins cattle busiiiess, ready at lier 
hands, the means of (iiiadnipliiig lier revenue, and 
he points out the ways and means. The larger 


IjDrdii—tlic Biiljjcijts of Hitj cattle-knigs—raiigo in 
nil tuber from 10,000 to 15,000 cattle* 

111 XortLeni I'loi'Itla tinur brceOi^of cattle—Diir- 
liain, Devon, Avrsliire, Jei'sev, aiul Alderney—liave 
been libundly introd need, witlim the last ten years 
especially ; and jrreat improvement in the quality of 
tbe cattle generally Lae been tbe gratifying resnlL 
In tbe lower counties, however, where the greater 
herds are to bo found, very little liris hecii done thus 
far to improve tlie breeds. 

Sheep. Northern FKirida is tlie best part of the 
Stale for sheep. The pasturage suits them letter, 
anti the bin's uiul spurs are not so likely to damage 
the Heeco as in the lower and pinier regions* But 
hiii'R and spurs must not he neglected anywhere. 
The industry of sheep raising in Florida is oM but 
not extensive. Bennuda grj\ss is one of the best for 
slieej); and, when jirnperly coniined within good 
psist 11 re-limits, tliev do anywhere very well : hut 
the extent of the hiisiiieas and the size of the flf>ckA 
are necessarily quite limited. A dock of 30(1 is 

Goats.—ExjHTimcnts with goats have not been 
very exterisive, Ijut the outlook for them seems to 
he quite as good as that for slieep, if not better, 
ArigoiTis, Cashmeres, and liiier-flecccd goats gener- 


ally might Bucceetl l>ettcr tluin the common; Imfc 
the conditions of fine success would neccssiinlv he 
very mxich the same m for shee]>. 

Colonel Donncttj of LotiLsiiinu, says: ‘MioatH 
thrive well in the ]iiiic-laiids of the South, and 
more attention sliould be paid to raising tiieiu in 
tliese States* Goats are cleacier and mom healthy 
aniiiialB than sheep j tliey are more sagjicious, have 
more self-protection in tliem, and live and thrive on 
browse all winter* Sheep have an many intiriiii- 
ties, and need so much nursing and attention, and 
peculiar kinds of nvngcs, and convenient watenng* 
places and good waiter, and so imieh care and jiro- 
tection, that few esm ejiare the time an<l lahtir nee<k‘d 
to preserve the fiiKjk and make it pnjspernns* Dogs, 
hogSj buzzards, eagles, all prey upon sheep arul 
lambs, and they are liable bi nasal catarrh, scalj, ffMit 
and liver rot, diarrheea, and niimerniis other dis- 
eafiea and frailties from wldcli goats am ahiifist eii- 
tircly free. Considering tlie health fill ness of goats, 
and the loathsome diseases that prey up<m sheep, 
we would always prefer fat kid tu lainli oj' mutton*” 

The Angora has been raised successfully in the 
Sbito of Coahnila, iilexic/), wliicli fs in tlie same 
latitude as Florida, 24® to 30®, Mr* W* BrcKlenck 
Cioete, of that State, Im the largest and, eorisid- 


ui'ing itK the finest Angora iloek in Korth 
AiJienca. lie iias just made, so tlie Texas Stock- 
nnin ” states, a large slnpiiient of moliair to Eng¬ 
land, lie lias recently added 9,OOU AiigoniB to Ina 
lioek, l>y purchase from a lierdman iu Texas. Jf 
the Angora succeeds so vvcdl in Texas and Coahuila, 
there seems to be no reason to fear failure in 

Other Stock.—The native hog, like the native 
ciKv and [ajiiy, seems to he rather run out. All 
these arc better in Northern Florida than in the 
e\tn.‘rne south. With ])roperly improved breeds, 
hog-raising in Northern Florida may be as success¬ 
ful as anywhere in tlie United States; Init tlie gen¬ 
uine native, razor-hack Img of Florida^ wherever 
lie may he foimd. can not be fairly ranked a first- 
rate animal as a porker, All these runts—hogs, 
litn'scs, cows—seem to l>e the old S^iauish importa¬ 
tions, neglectcKl and left to nm wild for two hun- 
tired yeai^, and so run down. Ihit improved kinds 
of all these arc being introduced ; and all will do 
Well, cs[>eLdally in Northern Florida. 

Poultry.—All kinds of poultry do w'ell in all 
])arts of hdorida, an<l there is alniust everywhere a 
guixl local market for hotli poultry and eggs. The 
climate is all that could be desired, and especially 



Coohiuft, Le^Iiorris—but tho rivmoutb Ib>ck$ do 
ctjually welL The iiahirEil eiieiihes of the chicken 
in South Floritk am the wild cat, o[ws8iiin, and 

cidentals occarshmally, tliat inahcs poidtry - rni^jnijf 

Good local [)[ ices for |ioultrj and vg^ are ireh 

iea, eggfi sell at twenty-five centH a doiieii the year 
round. A settler on Lake Worth—latitude 2b® 

—reports, the present soiison, 9b 1 egg« from four¬ 
teen hens in tliree inontlis; an average of twenty- 
three eggs a month to tlie lieu. And many if not 
most parts of the State, with equal inanageuieriL 
could probably do as welL 

Turkejs, geese, and ducks thrive ev^erywhere, 
but the abundance of wild turkeys and ducks ren¬ 
ders tbe raising of doinestieatud birds tin necessary. 
Tlie man tliat can eboot a brace of ducks any hour 
in the clay need not bother with fusing them, un¬ 
less lie pi'efei's the domestic varieties. 

Gardening.—^Tlds is fast becoming a leading in¬ 
dustry in all pulls of tlie State ; and, as the StEite is 
settling up and developing southsvurd, new pnjducls 



and new eonditiona arc lending tlieir attmctinna 
continually. Gardening or tniek-farming h excc]>- 
tioindly attractive in tlio Bubtrox>if^^i'^ eonntIcEj on 
account of the important fact that most vegetables— 
toinatoefi, eelcryj cucnnibcrBj egg-plants potatoesj 
and ])retty iniicli all tlie market spiing vegetables in 
{leinaiid in the Kortli—can bu inanircd in that cli¬ 
mate fruin tw o to four weeks alica<l of even tlie cen¬ 
tral am) middle parts of the State, As illustrative 
of the wonderful scope of that subtropical region, 
flic following list of vegetables and fmits actually 
ripened and used on Lake Worth, in JJade County^— 
latitude 2b® do'—during tlic month of Deeemljer, 
1880, 13 given. It wjxs prepared by a resident of 
tliu [)hu’e at the time, and is as follows: 

Vcfjiifthffs .— Beets, cabbages, cassava, celery, 
cucumbers, egg-jdaiit, lettuce, onions, leal’s!ey, pota- 
(oeF, juimpkiiif^ radislies, siiaji beans, squashes, sweet 
potables, tanyalis, tomatoes, turnips, and water¬ 

—Bananas, citrons, cocoamits, Hgs, gua- 
vas, lemons, limes, oranges, papaw'S, [dantains, pine- 
ajiples, sa[)odil]us, aiid sugar-apples, 

d'fiis list does not give the scoi>c of vegetable 
ami fruit jmidnctioTis, Init what were actually on 
band during tlie midwinter moiitli of the year of 



the great freeze* Tliere is notliing invitlians in 
presenting this speeial list of one region, for the 
whole State teems with vegctahlcs aiul fruits all 
the vear rotnul, varying with tlie soils, cultures, ele¬ 
vations, and latitudes; but everywhere and ahvaya 
a rich and royal abundanee* Its own Sfwclal prtnh 
net is shipped from overy locality in the State; 
and in ten years from to-day these sliipmcMits wnll 
doubtles? l>e in the aggregate live times as great us 
they ai'c now. 

Mr. \W I). Chipicy, of PeriHiicohi, in his “ raets 
about Flonda,” gives the follow'!rjg facts in rtgaiii 
to the yields in Nortliern Florida: “ A man in 
Tallahassee luid prepared his aere of land, and, 
planted it in Irisli potatoes in January, 1SS4. In 
A]>ril lie planted com lietwecn the rows of jujtahxis 
and dug the potjitofs in Afay, wlurh gave the last 
dressing to the corn. In July he planted between 
the corn-rows sweet potatoes, which he liarvested in 
November, and lie eoimtoil up his yield as follows : 
9G barrels of Irish potatoes, wmrth JfeJ a harr^jl, !§3S4 ; 
40 huslicls of com, worth, with the eorn-sliucks htr 
fodder, ^i40: and Inishcls of sweet iioh'itoes, 
worth §150; a tohil of §574 from a single acre of 
ordinary farni'Crops, Had tlje aero been witfi 
pears, peaches, figs, olives, or JapaTiese perHiniinons, 



wjtli less labor and less outlay for luaimree, he inij^bt 
liave realized even greater proJits; and in garden 
]>r(>rliiet« BtiH more would have been realized.” 
These faetfi do not need eommeut 

An extensive truck-farmer of P’lorida may l>c 
(jiioted i\s giving the following estimates of wliat as 
an average croj) eati be grown on an acre : 

Tomatoes, 200 biLshels; cncumljers, 200 bush- 
t‘ls; snap beanSj 100 bushels; lri:^h potatoes, SO to 
7S busbols; green peiLs, 75 to 100 bushels; cal*- 
b:iges, SO to 150 barrels; meloTis,_ 500 to 3,000; 
struM'berries, 2/)00 to 4,0(00 f pi aits. 

A giirdeucr’fl calendar of \vhat to plant and 
wliat to gather each muntli in the year would give 
a tine exhibit of Florida’s horticultural resources; 
but—it woukl be too long for those pages. 

Besides the vegetaldes generally produced in 
the Southern States, there are pome whose area is 
1 ] Till ted. Among tiicso may be montioned the tan* 
yah, cassava, and coiiiptie. The Umi/ah is the Co- 
h/cosUi €(^eulcftfa^ according to Professor Whitner, 
and tliG OdUftflium esCKlejitum^ according to others, 
an<l is much eaten in the Sandwich Islands, It is 
retiiotely as to its roots like tltc sweet potato, with 
more starch and less sugar. Its large and liandsome 
leaves are familiar to most readers. It grow.s best 



in moLSt mh lanclts uhnost without eultivition* Caf*- 
mva hjifi been a gooii <kal written alioiitj and ia far 
better known. It will yield more tubers to the acre 


than imv other of tlie edilde-root faiiiilv. One 

^ w 

grower reports oUjObO pounds, or a thousand busfi- 
els, to the acre ; and otliers report sis bigli as S0,0o0 
pounds. Analysis show.s the ea-ssava to be exceed¬ 
ingly rich in iTiercdiaiitable and nutritive cdeinents, 
yielding about 30 cent of gltieose or sirup, 
per cent of starch, and 10 per cent of the residnnm, 
tapioca.. It is very valindde as stcajk and jionltry 
food, and pro[>erly' prepared is an excellent article 
for the table. It is easily propagated, from the 
stalk and branches eiit into ineccs; nod will grow in 
any soil, but yields in tbe br'st soil:*, Omtiptie 
grows wild in tbe subtrojiics. In Dade Cxniuty' the 
people for many years liiive been manufacturing 
from it starch and a species of arrow-root, for the 
Key West and locid markets, and for home ifec. 
Opium,^—The making of opium from the poppy 
has been tided with fair measure of success. One 
individual report.s fifty- pounds made by him at one 
time; and at City' Point on Indian River—^about 
latitude 28"^ ^"2 *—intelligent ex[»erimentri have been 
made through several years ; and, under the etinui- 
lus uf a new jrmcess, put for ward by Mr. \\\ W. 


‘20 i 

Wiritbrop, of oxtraeting tlie morphia directly from 
tlic ]Kj[>py instead of tlie old process of extracting 
it from the gxirn opiiira, it is likely that a new and 
pmetical im[>etus will be given to poppy-growing, 
Mr* Winthrop says of liis process: ** I extract the* 
morplna, so ttj speak, from tlie plant direct, without 
making it into gum-opitim Hi^t. In other words, I 
extract the inorjdiia from the meeonate state in 
which it is held This will be an imniense saving, 
but it will require considerable capital to build up a 
factory, etc,, to maimfactnrc morphia in qiiantlticB, 
'I’hc chemists extract the morphia from tlie gum, 
and it ib as tnorphinc that most of it is used.” The 
same writer thinks that JiTOO an acre is not a large 
t^tiiiiiite f<ir jjoppy-grow'ing* The time to plant in 
that latitude is .March and April* Fartlier Boutli 
this time would he a little earlier, and fartlier north 
a little later* 

Honey.—The hec works in every latitude, and 
has anqile materials cverj^wherc. In far south cli¬ 
mates the lioney-ljcc, like the hiiinau hec, having all 
tlio year before liiiu in which to work, works more 
leisurely; and his stores have to be plundered jn- 
(lieiously in order to encourage Ins perseverance in 
Htorliig liberallv* Little has been do 4 e at bee rais- 
ing in Florida lieyond supplying liome needs of 


lionejj but thu iiulii^try could bo cxtuiided viisth\ if 
tliere sliould biJ occasio!i ; but, whore tbore wm fit) 
many attractive and reiminerative diivctioTis t)f 
LiboFj it is not to be expected tliat every tiling can 
be pushed forward at the eaine time. 

Out of the Waters,—The waters yieUl ses'en mer* 
chan table products—tishj oyfitorsj turtles, spongeSj 
sliells, corals, and alligator spoils. 

A writer in .Key West states that the lish biisi- 
ucsB ill South Florida amounts to §8^)d,u00 a yeai'; 
and even Cuba is supplied ivith fis-Ii fmin these 
ivatcrs. From the cverywlicre-present an<l always 
excellent Bea niullot to that [jrhiee of lisli the poni- 
pano, all the edible hslicfi are fine and sell well. 
There are iislicnes all along the miles of 

fihore, and Northern Florida exports iish in large 
quantities. Appalachicola, l^ensiicola, and Ce<lsir 
Keys, all ship largo quantities of fifilu Tbc 
of fishing is discussed on other pages. 

Oysters abound in most jiarts of tlie State. 
Scores of boats engaged in tins fifibery busiiicsvS (!en* 
ter at Key West; and all the wny up the Gulf c^iast 
and the whole extent of tiie Atlantic coast, from 
Fcrnandina fioiithward at least to the 2Tth degree of 
latitude, oysters planted by Nature abound. Afariy 
private plants arc now being made, especially on tlic 




Sotjtli AtlEintie and Gtilf coa^its, iiotiibly in the 
(yCflar Keys region. Cainung lisis been begunj with 
eonKider.iljlo ea})ihi1 employed* 

TtiHlrH .—Four or iiv^e kinds of turtle are very 
[deiitifiil, cspceially o!i the south Atlantic and 
Koiitli (tiiIF e<jafcts* Of th&se, the ^reen turtle — 
Vhi‘l4>ma —m j)erliFips the most prized j but 

there are also hawkbillB, ami tnmk- 

hsicks. Tliey weigh fr<mi a few pounds up, it is 
daiuii'ih to 1,2011 j^oimds each* The turtling busi¬ 
ness is variirtL 'I'tie turtles are captured mainly 
with nets, hut are also CELuglit while on land, and 
trapped iii various ivays* Turtle-tiiruing is a sport 
lor tlie bin's as \rell as [>rutit-pursuit. The turtle- 
floats spend fmpiently two luontlis on the tiirtling- 
gnuiTids, and the liiisiness, it is f^aid, is worth some 
5J^400,00 o; but such estinuita^ are vague appro .vim 
tions inerclv. 

of which the turtles lay fi'Oiu 100 
to 000 in each nest, are al^o valuable as food, and 
in tlicir season make an appreciable item in the 
provisioning of tlie far south [pioneer settlers* In 
Key A Vest the beef and the turtle markets stand 
side by side, aud many prefer the ktter as a 
regular ineaf-supjily* Turtles are sliippcd alive 
to the Northern markets from Key West, Lake 



Wortlij BiscMvne, and Beveral points on tiic Gulf 

A species of tortoise or ternipin, tliat (nirrows In 
the sandy soil^ and po[>nUiriy known in tills ytato as 
the gophe}\ is comiiioiily eaten ; aii<l eonsiderahio 
shipments in a retail way are made from the <Tulf 
coast tu the Key West markets, t.TO[>her 
is a popular dish in some neighhoriiouds, 

It is a somewhat singular philologi<'al faet that 
the animal liei'C called goplier is known in the 
West as tlic salamander j wliile the hunowiiig nit 
that in the West is called go[>l]er is here known as 
the salamander. The derivation of tlio w<ml goph4^}\ 
from the French {hoiiey-ei>ml>), doubt lesw led 

to the confoumliiig. 

Sponges are gathcre<l in several |alrt^^ of the 
StatCj especially in the far south regiuriH, Ap[Kila- 
cliieola, Rio C^irahelle, Hi. Mark’s, atid ('cdai' Keys, 
do a good deal in that way. Key West clainiH to 
export 500,000 pounds a year, the hulk of it going 
to Pari H. There area hundred and fifty Sjtonging- 
boats tliat center at Key M'est. The spoiigo-trado 
of the State is stated by some tropical writers as 
fully §1,000/XJO a year, but this is pn#bubly some¬ 
what over the mark, Tlie spougea are taken in 
waters from five to twenty feet dee]>< "J'liey are 



<li8l(K]^e(l from tlieir beds with hooksj taken as!lore, 
and hid^crl until life is extinct; then heaterij cleaned^ 
and dried—altogether a most tiiisavoTj work. Some 
s]lingers nuike as iiiiich as §^1,000 in a niontli of 
tlje sponge sesison, Many of the line and expensive 
Meditorranmn sponges sold in oiir Koithern mar¬ 
kets are gathercxl in Florida, sliipiKHi to Paris, re- 
touched, and exported thence to America—to dem¬ 
onstrate the siijjeriority of European wares! 

Shelh of divers kirids and corah are gathered in 
many places; the farther south, the riclier and more 
numerous they are. Going sonthward, these prod¬ 
ucts of the sea inci'eaee in color, size, and value. 

Alltfjaior^ frotn their ainjdiibioiis domain con¬ 
tribute teeth and liides, and these Imv^e been much 
sought of late years. The shooting of alligators 
ccase<l a few years ago to Ijc a sport wortliy a re- 
speetable fijJortsniaEi, and is now a legitimate busi¬ 
ness pursuit, ]>nt not very extensively pursued, be¬ 
cause not easy nor xxry pj'oiihible. 



rishing,— Writers on f^portin;r, wlietlier in tlio 
field of Ciij fur, or feather, agree almost utuiiii- 
moiisly III pronoiineing Florida a jranidise for eport.s- 
men ; altlioiigh, as between iunJ-sports ami tisljing, 
the latter is unqiiestioiuibl^y the finer. One of tlie 
ablest and best iiifornied writem of ttHlavs ^Ir. S. 
Clarke, of Marietta, Georgia, widely kno\\ ri n« an 
angling naturaliRt, liolds that tlio eofu^ts of ihc 
Peninsula of Florida afford a greater variety of spe- 
eics of fisli, and ])i*obab]y a greater variety of vahi- 
able food-fishes, than can be found in anyone region 
in the United States.” Dr. Cfiarles J. Keiiwortliy, 
of Jacksonville, tlie “jD of the sporting 

journals, a leading aiiCliority in spf>rting iiiattoi’H 
in Florida, bears ample testimony to the supreme 
excellence of that State’s piscatoriai advantagtiH. 
Her 1,200 miles of salt-water coast, added fo her 
freih-water bodies—-lakes, riverf?, ponds, spring#*, 
havens, and bayous—botli variety and diven^^ity 



of Mil, and supply a variety and divei^itv of Mfihcs 
altogctlier exceptional. Onr knights of the rod find 
Ijore some inigrutorv fi:fihe5 tliat are common on the 
Xortlieni coasts, such as the stnpcd bass, sea-bass, 
hhie-bsh, shei'pshead, and weak-fisli ; others that do 
not usual!y range fartlicr north than Delaware, such 
as tlic black arul the red drum; olhci's that aixs local 
in theii- habits and range, such jls the groupers and 
snajtpej'H; others again of a more tropical character, 
tlnit a[)pcar on tlie Florida coast only in warm 


wi^atlier, and wliose lioine is tlio iiioi'c tropical lati- 
tmlcs, ns the taqjiiin, eavnlli, and tlie lady-tish, All 
along the ocean and Chilf coasts, where the fresli- 
waler lakes are near the sea, there are to be found 
within a mile or two both salt and fresh waters, 
with tlidr ficjianitc and distinct families of fishes. 
In other ]>laec&, notahly at Lake Wortli, in Dade 
Ffvnnty, there are three edasses of watei^—'the ocean 
wliieh is salt, the lake which is senihsalt, and the 
lakes inlaiul winch ai'C fresli—all witliin less tlian 
three miles; thus affording three classes of tisb. 
‘^ Nowhere,’’ says ^\\\ ( ’larkc, in our broad conn- 
tiy can the aTigler find greater vaidety of game or 
nu>rc or better sjiort than on the coasts of Florida. 
Ill an experience of more tlian fifty years as an an¬ 
gler, reaching from Canada to Florida and from 



JLissach 11 setts to Coloradoj tlie writer has found uo 
region where fish were so abundant as on this [the 
Ecist Florida] 

An exhaustive list of tlvc fishes of this State 
would cover the whole scope of Souiherii waters^ 
both temperate and tropical, and botli salt and tresln 
Dr, Ilensiiallj in his racy liook oii Florida, gives a 
list of one hundred and twenty specie:^ found l)y 
him in tliese watoi's. Of course, tlie fisli vary with 
the latitudes, the sontheni waters liavlng iuoi*e kinds 
and larger tishes, an<) the sjiortsniaiL that wants the 
finest sport in this line will go to tlic far sonth, 
either Gulf or Atlantic side. 

The most attractive fishes, taking tlie coninion 
ground of botli fnn and food, sccni to Imj tlie fob 

The jjompano is geiic:’any laiown by that name, 
although tlie early French settlers in Sonth Caro^ 
]ina called it the cTOvalle* It la the most valued 
food-hsh of the Southern waters, ainl in the New 
Orleans markets it ranks first It is a iHittomdirth, 
and the angler that expects U) hook it in list he alert. 
Mr. Joseph B. Wliitc, of New York, writing from 
T^ake Worth Inlet, in Dade Count)', reports, during 
the present year, his capture of a poinpimo weigh* 
ing twenty-one pounds. He used a bass^hook with 



conch butt, Tliis m probiibly the largest pompano 
ever caiiglit in Florida ^vatcj's. The usual average 
M'eiglit is perl laps Icbs than half that. 

Tjje Hh€4^jmhmd ranks close to the ])OTnpaiio as a 
Bpoii-fish, and is soiuewliat inoi^ easily and more 
frer|iiciitly caiighL 

TIic chitn’i^eX hm^ is called red drum in Vir¬ 
gin ta, spotted bass in Bouth Carolina^ and red- 
hsh in Fiew Orleans. It is considered one of 
tlie best gaine-tish in these waters, a stroog and 
j)ej'HiKtent fighter, and eometiincs weighs forty 
IHUiiids, and on tlie line feels as if it weighed 
two Iniiidrod. 

d'ho 8i*H WiiUr trout or spotted trout — the 
(^ijwmcion wamkttnm of tliC books—is easily 
c:mglit with liook, weiglis from three to fifteen 
pounds, and is an excellent food-fisln 

The m/ (jroupt r is a bottom-fish, of fine quah 
ity, strongs wary, and is liest caught with mnllet- 
bait j and wlion hooked genomllj makes for liis 
covert under the roots and rocks, whence only tlie 
smailer sizes—say five-poimders—can be hauled by 
ordinary manqiower. 

The camlli frequently weighs ten to twelve 
pounds. It ifi finer as a game-fish than as food, 
and will take almost any bait, but will fight to the 



death before it will leave the wator, anil dies as 
soon as hindeJ. 

"1\\Q inangmve mitppe7^ is a secretive and shy lisli, 
like the frrouper, and is caught in the same iiianiier. 

The Spanuh muekerel in its season is a prince 
among fish; and many eonsider it siijjerior to the 
i^'ompano, and it is luneli less fiequenlly caught* 

The lady-ji}ih^ or ski|)-]ack as it is souietiiiies 
calledj is the most ngilc and acrohatie of all these 
Southern li.shea ; and^ while almost useless for the 
table, gives her captor sport galore. 

The harmcifda—\\M^ Spinjmntf hiu^rnemia or 
a strong fish, of guod ipiaiity, and fi 
great favorite willi aiiglei-s* The siiuiller sixes usu¬ 
ally caught arc excellent for food, Init the large 
oii&s arc unmanageable on the line and ratln'r 
coarse sometimes* 

The tarjmm. or tarpon is a herring-sluiped fislu 
often five or six feet long, of giant strengtli, and 
generally takes the tackle with him into the (Kioaii, 
It w'ciglis from a hundred potmds up to severid 
hundredj and is too coarse ordinarily for food, hut 
always attractive to adventiiroiiB anglers. I'fie Jrtfr- 
Jish also is a large fish; so also arc the Hhm'kn ; 
albeit anglers do not usually care to cultivate or to 
tackle citlier of them. 


7 /iiflLyl fiwariiis iu most Florida watoi's, and 
Ran bo caiJf^ht Ijost with c^lst-net or seine, for it ro- 
fiiRCs all kiuda of bait. Flshcrmcu fre^juontly catoli 
tlje mullet with cast-nct oi' dip-netj and use it as cut 
bait. The mullet is fair food, but the netting for 
them of cour^^e iiijnni'S the hsbing at that plax:;e. 
The silver or white mullet is the one that abounds 
in Florida- 

'i'he l/Dic-JtWt is iirst*clasa gsmiej ami also eSt¬ 
eelier! t food. 

The t/rttm is a rather coarse fisljj and in tlie 
extreme j^jntii is not eomnionly eaten, al{hough 
iiljout Si, Augustine its quality is better. TJie 
largest sizes weigli as in neb as forty pounds, and 
can [mil hke a liorse. Tiic ?vy/ dritt/if cdled In 
Fast Florida the {diaiinel bass, is ])erliaps the Selni- 
liftjiA oeMjfa of Gill. It is an omnivoroufi fish, 
holtl, sti'oiig, and intelligent, weighing fiometiines 
iifty pounds; but tliis size is not often pulled in 
with ini angle line. The hahit-s and figlrtiug metli- 
oils of the drains are similar to those of the sheeps- 
liead, jvud it takes both skill and strength to land 
either quickly, 

A tine tisli of the or the aol^ family 

has hecn caught on the Atlantic shore of the 6uh- 
fropier, hut if is by no lueans eominoiu 


J^ream is in favor, and U wrv alnindaiit- 

Bcvsidc.s tlj^’se tUere uitj stores of lislies tnoiv <ir 
less common ; as tlio moon-lisli and tlio sun-lisli, 
the pike, the bonito, rethtish ami whiting* snapi^er 
and snook, gii^ and sucker, eel, gnint uiul [au'“ 
gcc, the (Uiiritv needlefish, the wonderful tUiri^- 
fish, the formidable sword-tisln siiw-tisli, mnl slairks, 
the hateful nivs and Htingiirees, eat iish, imd lio^- 
fish, an^el-tish and devihlish, anchovy, men linden, 
sailor's choice, and luiimows. 

A list of the lisldng*groimds of Florida would 
embrace almost every jilaee sitaatcd on water; iind, 
in view of the e.vtent of coast, nuniher of lakes, and 
multitude of islands and keys, it is evident that the 
iHimber of such places is ratlier lar/;e» Ih', Ken¬ 
worthy ninicrtook several yearH a^o to make a list; 
and he named over tiiirty places, scattered rri>iu 
Fernandina round to I'eiisacol:n ami nil throuj'Ii tin* 
riutneroiis lake I’egions and lueamlerinf^ rivers, Tfio 
fact is that, while some |>Iaees arc hetter situated 
for fishin;' than others, tliere is hardly miywhere 
that good fishing can not he had. Other tilings be¬ 
ing erinal, the host grounds can not he espcchsl 
near cities and large towns, whtro steamei's anri 
various sailing-craft fretjuent and seare away tlie 
finny ganic^ nor in waters where t)ie cast-net, the 



<|]]>-riet, tlie gill-nut, and tlic Bdiie are industriously 
]>lied. Business interferes ivitli pleasure, Kock 
IxidgCj Ht. Lnuiej J^[ke Worth, JiTscayne Bay, Cape 
Itotnano, Oiarlette Ilarberj Tampa Bay, Cedar 
Keys, and so on—every port, bay, river, lake, and 
bavoii, fixjin the WL Mary’s to the Perdido—are 
all, svitb the if above named, fine fisliing-groimds; 
and each nevcral one (some enthusiastic dweller 
there u'ill cnnlidently assure you) is tlie fislier- 
man^s ]>aradise—whatever that is* Rut It in true 
tfiat wherever the sportsman may jdeasc to go, at 
the [jroper time for tisluiig there—be it ocean, gulf, 
bay, l>:iyon, ehanneb sound, river, lake, or spring— 
iliore be will dud interesting sjiort. lie may liave 
angle, net, seine, gig, or liarb—in boat or from tbe 
shore—liy day or wirh torehligbt^—vsdietber lie is 
fisliing for fun or for fish—and he will lind on this 
eentineiit no better theatre for Ids piscatorial feats 
ibau lljese Florida waters* 

With reffird to tackle* I>r. Iveuwortliv &iivs that 
thy game tisli of Florida are niieducated, and make 
no distinction between ii mist-colored leader and a 
clothes lltie, Tlio great desideratum for Florida 
tisldiii; is strcnijtli of tackle—stout linos aiul large 
books. A heavy bass-rod is all-hriportant; if %- 
fishing is indulged in, the rod should be not less 



tliaii eiglit ounces. the fisli are not [>artieular, 
expensive hies need not bo used. For haiuldiuc 
tisliiri", resnioiit experts use calilc-laid cotton and 
braided cotton liiiea. 

Hufltmg.—Gaiiic is plentiful in most parts oi 
Florida, tliough less so than iish, and both are 
more abundant in the sparsely-settled smith than in 
the older rertions farther luu'tlu 

The host game seems to be deer, tluek, turkey, 
bear, pantber, wild cjit—in that order—and histiy 
small game. In this class may be iiaineit the hare 
or rabbit, opossuiUj nujctHui, sriiiirrel, ipuiil, imd the 
host of birds. 

The deer abounds especially in the far suuth ; 
and experienced sportsmen have written up sevenil 
localities—irit, Lucie and ftoek Ledge on Irulimi 
liivor, Lake Worth, the Oahjosaluiti'lieo Viiiley, 
Kissliiitncc, (dear Water 11 arbor, and so on. ddie 
Imiiting is generally witbout dogs ^ and tfie hunter 
or party of hunters, having reconnoitred tlie field, 
moves cautiously through tlie wocmIs^ gtutiding at 
selected points, and thus finds the animal witljoiit 
ulanniiig it. This is the Indian metfiod ; ami the 
Iiidiatis arc always succcssfiil hunters, f he deer 
has certain hom-s to feed, to drink, and to fake 
salt; and h easily found by those that study these 


A llusTKii’a 



lioiirs caivfiillj, Tiic riiooii atTorJiS favonililo light 
at cGrtaiii periods, umi &ho^voi>> liiroet the game 
to cevtaia pastures. The hiiiitLr that luetU 
little in<Hvla^ apparently tritling tlioiigli tliev man, 
need rarely return linrne gaiiielos.s aiiywlteix* in tlu^ 
game reghjtn I>ut tlie vic;itiiig spiii't.';nijm will fre 
qiiently liriiig with liiui Ids own ^^pe(a:ll taale of 
tieUl-etliics, ami is likely at the outset to despise 
the sim[>ler and more primitive taetics of the resi¬ 
dent luuitcr. lint, whatever he the ethies or the 
tactics, tliD main point inul [Uirpose of luiuting will 
l)e the same—ahiiiidaiice of game. 

l.)uck*.shootli(g is a scieiu'e—at least uil iirt—of 
the expert tluit calls for no special iliKCUsslom lii 
tlieir sensom these liinls abmiml in eoiiutlesH hosts 
in certain localities, and these localities art- ii In lost 
cv^erywhere tluit water aiul bIuji'c pi'cscnt gofal con* 
ditions. Dr. llonshall found Bcveiiteeri sjiecies of 
dneks in Florida, His list einhraccs the <^iiiiviih- 
hack, mallurch three teals—the IWack, tin; wood, ami 
the pintail 

Turkeys exist generally with the doer; iind, 
while thev are scarcer tliaii deer, they afford exc^ch 
lent sport to thcific fond of that kind, I lie cornuion 
wiId tnrkey—■ h galhgm m A m 'v iva /cf/—is 

the only epesics reported hy htniter'iiafiiRilist^ 



lieun? are ^etfin^ scarce, except in the clecp re- 
fcftHCS of tlie goiitliurn unsettled ceiiiitTjj aud even 
tbere Ijcar-hiiiiting is compsirativelj rare of late 

Paiitliers and wild cats are hardly legitimate ol)- 
jeets of fipoitdiiinting. They are geueiEiIly bunted 
by tlic residents in order to rid tbe country of dep¬ 
redators, and directly in the interests of poultry- 
yards and ijig-pens. Put the hunter for other 
game sonictimeB encounters one of these pronounced 
characters, and the anioniit of fight and run—gen- 
crsilly tlie run jirecedes the fight—is ample to at* 
tract coimiderahie attention* 

In addition to the ahove-iiarned, the fnr game— 
indndiiig pests and prtAvlei^—of Ilorida embraces 
the following : Pyiix, wolfj fox, miuk, skunk, otter, 
polecat, ssdamEmder, rat, mouBC, and mole* In Al¬ 
ienas “Mammals and Winter Birds of East Florida’^ 
much viiluable and iutcivsting information in this 
tlireetiou may be found; also in Ilcnsliairs “Camp¬ 
ing and Cniif^ing in Flondsu’’ 

The featlieri'd tribe, besides the bird game above 
iiiCMitioned, is very numerous, fine-plumed, and 
sweet-voiced. There are the blvie-bird, the black¬ 
bird, and the cardinal-bird j the thrush, bobolink, 
cat bird, oriole, and the polyglot inockiiig'biid ; the 



titmonse, wren, and liiiinniing-liird; the liipamnv, 
lark, snipe, clave, kingflslier, and juv; tlic virc^o, 
shrike, clicrwink, gracklo, woodpeeker, ^voodeock, 
and plover; the crow, eight species of hawk, owk 
king-buz7:ard, and v^iilture ; the paiof]uet, willet, 
sandpiper, god wit, stilt, niarslidieu, and rail; n vjt- 
riety of c ran ess eight species of iierons, the ilainingo, 
bittern, gallinule, gaiinet, curlew, and ihiit; tlie 
kin, pelican, cormoi*ant, and water-turkey; the giiih 
tern, egret, skimmer, and the gnat^cjiteher; llie 
warbler, kiltdecr, wliip-poor-will, and cliiiek-wiJlV 
widow. These are permanent residents; and win* 
ter 1 mines some sc vent v-f our other tourist binls, 

AVithoiit heiiig gi^inc in tlio ordiiuiry souse ^)f 
that word, tlie alligator, winch nboiinds in all the 
available frOvdi-watcr streams and lakes in the State*, 
is extensively liunted, and that too f{n' mere Apart, 
as well as for Iddes, teeth, etc. That is, in arlditioii 
to being an industrial pui'snit, alligator-kiiliiig is a 
sport, and pnrsnecl I)y a certain doss of tourists for 
the mere fun of mni’doring the eresdurtis. 

The same is true, to a very limited extent, how¬ 
ever, also of the manatee. This monster amiihihlaii 
is strictly subtropical. It is found, on the AtlaTitic 
side, as high up as the St. Lucie River, near lat^ 
itude 27^ The younger ones liave flesh that is 



tender sind wlielefiome, and these calves arc &aul to 
be mucli sought by both Jndiaiis and wliites. The 
manatee m sluggish and clumsyj sometimes twelve 
or iiftcen feet in lerigtlij and ten or twelve feet in 
girtfi; and wlicii well grown will weigh a ton* One 
writer gives the inaxiimiin weight as 3^000 pounds. 
It has two handdiko flipjjcrs, small eyes, and a head 
very remotely Iil<e a cow^s* It is pachydermatous, 
of darkdjrownish color, and h<is sparse liair; is a 
li.ij'iiilcs.^ and docile Ijeast, and is usually caught, as 
turtles are, with n strong rope seine* It is also shot 
or harpooned* 

"i'hc grampus is imieh rarer tluiu the manatee. 
This monster hi\n been captured, or killed, and 
latuled oil the Gulf shore, in lIilLsborongh County, 
and perhaps in otlier places* 


Insects.—Mueli exaggerntcd nonsense luifi been 
^vritten about tlie insoets of Floriila. It isi tj'uo tluit 
the earth, the waters, ami tlie ulr there tconi with 
life, a£ they do in all southei'ii eliinates, lint it is 
also true that tlie insects are not ag^rt‘ssi\^e in ]mt- 
portiori to their miiiibcr. Hnman life is naturally 
shaped so rus to oiFset the natural i^urmundinjifl i and 
no civiH/.cd man need rttieeiiiub to so triflin^j; an 
enemy. The s<une moans that Biillieo to keep 
mosquitoes in New Jersey will keep them olT in 
Plorhhi. The mosquito season is longer iu tlie 
South, but these insects can be kept at bay more 
easily in the ^onth foi- the reason that niiicb greater 
attention is paid to apjilianees for tliat piirpc^RO. 
Houses are constructed so iis to exeliide tliem ; and, 
with windows and doors pro[x;rly wire-netted m 
closed with gauze of suitable texture, and beds 
properly protected with netting, tliere nee<l lie no 
great annoyance from inosqnitoes» hen they get 



footliold ill a mom, a f^poonful of iiLseot-pawcler— 
pi/ref/t7^H7nf of sevenil viinetics—l>iiini< 3 d will expel 
or kill them. It ttiiii be grown tliore. Smudge-tires 
to windward will always banisli the mosquitoes. 

Fleas abound in KOine places^ ino.^tly wliei'e hogs 
and dogs live about the place; but these can be 
readily kept away with pennyroyal and several otlier 
plants, easily cultivated there. 

(inats, Hies, aiul that chies of pests, seem to bo 
altont the same as elsewhere. Where there are little 
jiest.s, there are usually larger enemies to them to 
keej) tlieni down. A large insect known as tlic mos- 
quitodiawk destroys countlcf^ thousands of gnats, as 
<lo also the spidem, birds, and liisaixls. 

The red*bng annoys those that hunt him np in 
the jungles and tangles of weed and iiadorgrowtli; 
but iioboily iiecil hunt up such pests. 

I’he cockn>aeli ahoiit the house is an annoy¬ 
ance^ but borax or some similar driig^—insect-pow¬ 
der, for examjde—will drive all roaclias away. The 
Rime is true of ants. 

Hand-flies are very annoying in places, but no- 
vliere constantly. They come and go, and are gen- 
emlly so near tlie waters edge that it is compara¬ 
tively ftisy to keep away from them. These pests, 
as well as all mosquitoes, gnats, and air-flies, may he 



ke])t at bay witli siinolclering tire?, populariy kiio^vn 
i[i Floiida a? smtulgu-tli^os, built ntul burned tu 
windward of the fepot to be pTOteetetk ^lateriab of 
plca&aiibodorcd stnokc aboimd Dveiywhere, aiul a 
spoonful of iusect-powder will insui’e the desiroii 

Eeptiles.—Them are three kinds of siuikes in 
Florida tliat are poisonous — tlie rattiesiuiko, tlio 
moccasins, and tlie adders, tlicre being two varieties 
of the moceif^iti and two of the atlder* These ali, 
especially the mttlesnake, lice from man ; and years 
of life in Florida have been passed without ever 
bearing of a case of bite from any of tiieac snakes, 
The liabitat of these m]»tilea is the jungle, the 
swamp, and tlie tliieket, places tluit it is rarely necis* 
sary to visit. The hunter and the lisbernian will 
naturally provide llieiuselves with jjrotectioii ngiun^t 
such danger’s, and deserve to be bit if they do nob 

There are several snakes that art! wholly iunrjeu- 
ous—tlie king-snake, the bidl or gopher snake, the 
ordinary black-snake, the coach-whip, the ground- 
snake, and indeed all except the rattlesnake, tlio 
moccasin, and the adder* 

Frogs, toads, and the like, serve their several 
useful purposes, as they do elsewhere, and should 
be protected and cultivated intelligently. 



Land-Sharkflk It is Uifficiult to classify tlicee 
posts, as tliuy arc not strictly insects, nor reptilcSj in 
the lioi pciologic^il souse of tliat word. They must 
bo tolorably Utjowii to the iiitolli^iit reading public 
of to-day; ultlioiiglij like Froteu% tbej assnine new 
sliajjos Mnth wonderful facility. 

The buoiTier is one variety of tbeso sharks, lie 
baft a wonderful vocabulary of ailjeetSvcSj both laud* 
atory aiul abusive; the former for bis one little 
Kdcn where bis lands are to sell, and tlie latter for 
every vvbeie, e very tin itg, and everybody else. 

The ]^a]K‘r-t<twii shark is one of tlie tiiost recent 
evolufidim. Ho is multiform and in'eprcssible ; and 
the piildie wmild better Ibink twice before reading 
bis wonderful “eireular.-^ The di'0|>giimc of the 
last geiu ralion, mid the siiw-diist trick of tbiSj arc 
neither of them so beautiful and attractive as this 
BtujiendoiiH sell of Morida. ^Vbile tliere may be 
honest mid truth fid booniers of tlie paper-touni 
** racket/' and doubtlesB tliere are, the public needs 
a volume of admonition and advice; and tliat vol- 
iinic is fEiitbfulIv condensed iu the one word“-l^E* 

4 -' 


As the tourist and prosj>ector for a home in 
Florida goes on in bis four of inspection, lie needs 
to sveigli well the testitnony be receives. If be do 



not be is likely tu i^ettlc in the coiunuiiiitv lio 

• V ^ 

interviews; for every one of tliosc seems to feel 
under obligation to belittle everv other eoinniunity 
tbLit lies ahead; and in thirf belittling tlioio is tuo 
often a deal oi belving. The traveler arrives at 
Jacksonville^ and looks aliont liiin, lie tliere is 
likely to get the imjirc&sion tluit tlie ci\'ilibation 
and refinement of tlie 8tatc center there; and tliat 
every step into the interior is a step towanl the 
backwoods and barbarity, <liKconifort, malaria, anti 
gcnci'al nothingness. Ills tirst stej) is into the St. 
Joint's Itiver region ; and there bo is in like maimer 
plied with the idea that he is in the center <d prog¬ 
ress, ciiltnre, and happy exemption from all the ills 
that lie so heavy on tlie lienighted lands to I In* 
southwanb Ills next step is to Indian Itivcr; and 
there lie gathers in the comforting idea that he b iti 
tlie genuine original center of civilisation, wlieru 
JS^ature is at her l)cst, where real progress is bnist- 
ing out, and Mdierc there are none of tliose disgiisb 
ing and discouraging drawbacks that ennse all tljo 
land that lies south of that paradise—the siilitrojiies 
of Lake Worth and Biscayne Bay, where there can 
be nothing but insects, vermin, mud, malaria, Iii- 
dianSj desolation, abomination, d boom fort, disease, 
black death, and poverty—wlicrc nothing will grow 



blit coniptrc Jind iiiatigroveii, nncl when? nobody lives 

But the traveler should listen at Jack son vi lie, 
listen on the St, JoIju'h, listen on Indian Biverj and 
listen Lii the subtropics. One disillusion ouglit to 
open bis eyes, (iencrally it doesn't. But three or 
four dihilliisinniTigs will suffice for all^ save the fool; 
and he would better stay at home. 

This ill tiot intended to mean that men are 
liars’’; but tiiat tlie explorer is likely to encounter 
in any coininunitv enough of that entertaining class 
to give him just that set of ideas. It meaus more; 
to wit, that that class of meddling romancers is just 
the one to liimt up» jnirsuc, and persecute the tonr^ 
ist and straiiirer with their hoanled treasure-s of lies 
about the eoimtrv* These mis rep resen tei^s are fully 
cqiiijijied with nil tlie resources of tlicir trade—tho 
mfppnmio rcr/, the fahi^ the innuendo, 

and the lie out of whole cloth. Tliey are irrepres&- 
ilde, elTusive, plausible, imescapablc, intolerable* 
The Ancient ^Mariner was passivity itself in compar¬ 
ison with these. The tourist must liear them. Let 
him listen, and—^go on. 


UAll.WAY KdirrKS. 

A.—n.OUItJJV CENTllAl, AND IM-SlXftl'I All liAlUmAll* 

Central nivisiON.'^Uoifiiitiiiip lU Kenintulliifli, tlio^ rirnd^lu 
CemmI ami PtMiinaubT IMi- (j3iUimb dirt'etly Ihu 

to Ced^r Keys, on tho (Jiilf coai^t (l')4 iirih'H), nt t. iiU 

Ifthaq the Siivnnmih, Flfirida and U>4<Tn K, 14* (VViiy<>ir(>mi 
Itrancli). Haiti win, at rho crtissiiifj of iho Wtntorn UlviHluii 
from JucksonvilJt? t» Chiittahoorriieo, h 47 iiiilra fmiu JV-r* 
nandina, 20 frain Jacksnnvillo^ iirnl 107 from Coslnr 
Waldo in 84 miles from Ft-rmiiiilinii, at llm |imHloii of tlio 
Soiitlu'rii and C4;;ntrn1 Uivjiiion- truiiiCHViHo (1)8 niiloH) i« tlio 
jmncipfil town on the lino of tins rmid. It hm ri,0(N» iiiliaOll. 
nntfl. four fhurcliuA* four ImU'K ft*i*l t'''" 

Koy^s is tlio Gulf terminns of Ihe milway, From CtMlnr 
K«ys a stoamer eaiils on Memdays and 'i'hiirwlojs for 'Parpon 
tipring^ nt tbo htftd of Aiiclote Etiver. n voyaw(> »f ‘‘Iwl't 
hours. Fi^^liteen iniks west of Cednr Keys, tho Htiwiiopo 
Kiver, navi;;rtldo to Kttnvilk, enters the Gulf; and xUa Withlu- 

coochce River, 18 miks (oiutli. 

Southern Division.— This division of llie Flondfi Cenlrnl 
and PeninsuEjir It, K. diver}(<‘S at Wnldo in a direction nearly 
eoiHheftst, erossin^ at JIawlhorne the track of tl>a Horiila 
Soutlicrn B. R. Citra and Anthony arc pa-fwid on the way 
to Silver Spring junction, whence a branch two miki bng 



Jends to Silver SpriDgs* Si^ctceu iniles south is the Lake 
Weir country^ aBtl 10 mileii fiirlbor ig WildAvood (ivlionco a 
branch line runs to Lersbur^^)* to l^lant Cil. 3 % where conDce- 
tion is made with the Bout!i FJorii])i IL U. At Tavares (2^2 
iiiUes from Wild wood) is the teniiinita of this division, where 
connections are made with Sanford, on the St, John’s Kiver, 
iiud Orhiiido. 

W RSTKitx Division, —From Baldwin this branch runs to 
tho Chnltnhotjchee Kiver, Itivcr diiiiciioii being its W'cstein 
teriniiius, It passes through Olustee, Lake Ciiy, Live Oak 
(where it intersecta the Florida branch of tho Savannah^ 
Florida and TVestern K. IL), Kllaville, Madison, Tailalms&ee, 
tho eapitali Quincy, and other Low ns. Jt connects at Cluitta- 
hoochee lilvcr ivith the l^nlsville and Nasljvillo li. R. for 
l^ensacoliii jiiid New Orleans. 


T]]is liiKs, starting from Jacksonville, follows the course of 
the St. Joljn’s River, passing ihrongh Orange Park, Magnolia, 
Green Cuve Springs, Palatka, Seville, Aster Junction, De 
Land Junction, and Enterprise, The main lino crosses the 
St. JolnFfi River by a bridge 3,500 feel long to the terminufi 
at Sanforil. The St. Augustine division connects Jackson- 
villo and Sl Aiigin^tine by an air dine road of 3G niilos. The 
De Land branch eonnects the main line, at De Land Junc¬ 
tion, with Dc Lamb a low*ri of 3,000 inhabitants. The 
Indian River division CNtend.'^ from Enterprise Jiinttion to 
Titusville, the largest tow'ii on Indian River. At Palaika the 
main line connects with llie Florida Sonthern Railw'ay for 
Gainesville, Ocala, Leesburg, Pemberton Fcrr; , and Brooks- 
v’llle. Connection Is also made at Pidatka w ith the St. Joim's 
and Halifax road for Ormond, Daytona, and Halifax River. 
At Orange Jiinetion the main line connects with tho Blue 
Sljrings, Orange City and Atlantic R. R. for Orange City, 
Lake Helen, New’ Smyrna, and HiJlsboroiigb River: at Mon- 



roo with tho Oranf^e Belt il, R. for Oiiklfttnl^ A[30pkiit lirooka- 
villo to Point PioelliiSj on the Gulf; nt Sll[^lbl^l with tho 
South FJorhU B. R, for Winter P:irk^ nrlainlOt Ivi^siininee, 
Bartott\ and Tampa, where nro met iho Culujin jiiuil-^-leinncri 
Oliv'ette and Mascolte, of tlio Plant L'met for Key Wes^t and 


From Sanford thi^ line BeUiir In Mnillaiid, n eolony 

of Nortiicm families^ and tlio rl-iingf resoi-tj Winter Park, 
beautifully »ituated on Lake Otjocol!!, tivc lullefl in clreutiirer- 
once. Paasinp Orhnnlo, witli ^l,o00 iuliiihitalit!^ tho road 
reaches KiAsimmeo City, skirt;* Lake Tohopekall^rn, njui com 
finues tbroii^li Lakeland and Plant City to TniniJn. 

». — FtORUU SOlTTnElt?; irAM.IiOAO^ 


This line e^ctends from J'nlatkn, crossinic tho [’lorida Cen¬ 
tral and Poninsnlar H. JL at Nawtliorrte to heeHbnrffj where 
it connects ivith tho St. Joiiii and Lake EuatM brnnei]. Prom 
Leesburg it is coniiniiod to Pemherton PciTy, Lukvland, and 
BartoWj where it meets lines from Saniiird, Orlando, and ilio 
St. John’s Rivor* Froni Uartovv trains run to Piirita Gorihh 
on Charlotte Harbor. 


TriE ST. JOIIS’b rEirER. 

The town of Mavport—tbe quarantine post and anuhorasu 
of Jacksonville—Ueii on the left of the river nl its nmutk 
Opposite is Pilot Tow'ti and St, George's lalan.l. Jtaily boiit» 
ran from Jacksonville. 

Jacksonville is 21 miles from Mayport. At tlds the 
St. Jobtfs, after flowing north for 300 Eiiiles, turna cfiatward 
and empties into tho Atlantic. Ita whole eoursa, wlricli Ilea 
through an extremely level region, is about 400 miles, and 
throughout the last IQO miles it Jjs little more than a succes- 



Bion of ];ikc9} expanding in width from H t<i 6 niiles,, aTid 
having nt tin jioiiil u widili of less than ona half mile. Its 
biiiiki? lire lined with n lu?kumiit tropical vegetation, lumd^nine 
^hade-treeji atid ormigt;-groves^ and here and tlicre are pict- 
wre.^que villages. The atciiniera of the l>e Bary and People’s 
line leave Jiirk»oiiville daily at S.30 v. for Sanford and 
Enterprise. Time, ahotii eighteen Ivotirs; fare, ^S4.G(J; round 
trip, Ketiiriitiigj leave Sanford at 2.15 p. m., and reach 
Jack^unvillv next morning. Others make a daylight run^ 
leaving Siitiford at 5 a. m., imd arriving at Jacksonville at 
(3.1 y p. jr. The following is a list of phices on tljo St. John’s, 
TJie disUiuees are from JacksonviSle [ 

I\ivei'£'ide.^, a 

tllaek I’oiiit,............. lo i 

Mulberry Clivjve.11 ■ 
Maiulai'iii IS 

Fruit Cove. 18 

tniiernia . 2^ 

tU'iiiinglun Park.. .. 2^ 

Magnolia..,..,,,.,,. 2S 

CJreen Cove Springs....... 31 

llugarth's Lmciing, 36 

pjcobLii..... ... -IS 

J I,I,,, S 2 

FL-dcrnl l^ohit.. 60 

Omnge Mills.. ..,,. 61 i 

ibucyV Wharf,05 
WhitcHtonOi,, 66 

hiieseirs [^Gliding..,., 00 


ItawIcstuH'ii.. 77 

San Mateo.80 
ihiffflio Himr.. S8 

iSat^unia B ^ ^ ■ IT ■ ■ -P I" » ■ ■■ 100 

Welaka... * ., lOO 

FeccilLcr 10 L 

Oj'OTige [Ntiiu..... 103 

Moiiiit [’oy.'il,low 

Fort (inlc3. 110 


Lake View.. 1553 

Drayton Island135 

Volusia.. 137 

Orange HhtfT,,,.. 140 

Ilawkiiisvillc. 100 

De Land lainding,102 

Lake Itreimsfonl.. 105 

liluc Spring. . .. ,...., 172 

Shell ibnik. 103 

Saafor^j.,.111,,,,., 1 ^0 

Mellotiville.. 300 

LiUerjirise.,. 205 
Cook's Ferry and King FldL 

ip'a Town.. 224 

I,ake Ilnraey.... 223 

Sallic's Camp .. 220 

Salt Lake.. 270 


Fonrtccn mites nbove^ on tlie cast bank. Is Maiidarm, one 
of tlio olde^T. &ettkment5 on tbe St. Joluj^s. U h tlie inter 
homo of iJrs, liamct Itoecber Stowe. Ma^iiulia (28 miles), 
on tbe Jnekfion^ ilte, TuTupu and iCev West K. ii., is situate I 
on tiio west bank. A liule to llio north of the poijit lJla< k 
Crock, ft miviyiiblo stroftin, iiji vebieh small summers make 
weekly tri|>& sis far Multiletnii^g, einiities itito the ■h.diti s* 
Tlirce miiea above Maj^nolia are ibe Civeii <.hivo oue 

oE the most fresiiienttd reports on Iho river, Imt now rimro 
easily resieheil by r.iil from Ja<'kwiui3Ee. Tiio ills- 

diarges about j^sillnns ii minute, smd liUs ft (nisil s^nno 

tiiivty feet In duirneter with greenish-buefil eryslsil ek'jir water. 
The water Inis ft temjieratnrc of TH® Fsilir.; rontiiins fiulidiates 
of magnesia and lime, clitorides of psndium and irNPii, ami siil- 
pbureted hydrogen; la nsad both for bathing iincl ibinking; 
und is considered Iwneiielnl for rlieuiiiatlstn, gouty uirerliiuis, 
and Briglit*s disease of the kidneys, Attaebed to tlie springs 
arc comfortable bathing rootns, and close Ity are several hoU‘ls, 
About 10 miles above, on the satuo sale, is Pk'olatJi, (be silo 
of an old Spanish aettlomcnt^ of whuili no tnmes now remain. 
Tocoi (52 mikm) is of some importance ns IIjo pi pint where 
connection la made with the Ht, JoliriN Kaitrcuul lo S^t, An* 
gnstine, 15 miles distant, Palatka occupies a (me, ftlgh pla¬ 
teau with a wide-reaL-birig view up and down the river. It 
13 the head of navigation for steaniships, 75 mikm from .Jnck- 
Bonville by the river and 30 by railroad. It has rail^vjjy 
connection with (Tuinosville and Ocidn tiV* the l loriihji 
Southern R. IL it hjia a jiopuhition of nearly O/KiO, In 
the vicinity are many old, productive, nml valmible luaiigiv 
groves; and on the opposite side of tlie river, rcnclied by 
ferry, are the famous groves of Colonel Hurt. Piilatka is 
steamboat headijniirters for the iipjicr St, .rcihn’.s and its 
tributaries. Steamers run from Ihihitku up the Oeklawaba 
River to Silver Spring, and a railroad—^the St. AiigiisLine 
and Pftlfttka Railway—offers fneiUties for reaciiing the sen. 



pAlntkn tlie becomes more clmracteristi- 

cnJIy tropical, and tlie river narrows down to a moderiitc- 
eized slrciim, widotiin^ out at lust only to be merged iti 
grand Luke George, Dextvr's I^ke, and Lake iloiiroe. TJie 
BtciiTnei^ rniikc the rum from Palatka. to Sanford in about 
twelve hours. IVelaka (25 miles above Palatka), above the 
entrance Co Dnnn^a [.ake^^ and opposite the iiioutb of the 
Uckkivjififl Hiver^ is the site of wliat was originally an 
Indian village, imd afterward a jlourislnng Sjianish settle- 
riiciiL Just above Welakfl the river widens into Little 
Lake GeorgOi 4 miles wide and 7 miles long, and then 
into Lake George, 1^ miles wide and 18 miles Jongj one of 
tlio mast boiiutitiil sheets id' water in the world; iimnv isl- 
innls dot ila surface* It is 1,700 acres in extent, and con¬ 
tains one of the largest oniiige-grtives on the river. Volusia 
(o miles ahfive Lake George, 137 miles iVetn Jacksonville) is 
a wotHLstalion, with a settlement of considerablo size back 
thnci the river. Thirty-five miles above Volusia is Blue 
Spring, one of the largest mitiei’Jil springs in tho State. It is 
several Inmdred yards from the St. JoliiPs, but tbo stream 
Ibiwing from l!ic spring i?j largo enough at its confluence w ith 
tho river for tlie steamers to float in it. Fureuing its voyage 
to tho south, tho stoan^er siieedtly enters Lake Monroe, a 
(^hoot of water 12 miles long by 5 miles wide* On tho south 
side of tho lake is Satifonl, ihe metropolis of South Fluridti, 
situated at tlio head of navigation for large steamers on the 
St. John's, On the opposite side of the lake from Sanford ia 
Enterprise, a pO|>ulftr resort. 

Although Sanford is the lieiul of largo steamboat navigation 
on tlie St. John's, there is for the sportsman still another hun¬ 
dred miles of narrow river, deep lagoons, gloomy bayous, and 
wild, untrodden laud, abounding in game, while the waters 
teem w itb fish. Small boata can bo obtained to run during the 
winter through Lake Hurney to Salt Lake, tbe nearest point 
to the Indian Kiver from ihfl St* John's: and a small steam- 


Lmt mateii frc^juint excursion:} tJiroiig]i Lnksi Jessup to Ljike 
Harnej'. T!io trip to Lake ILirncv and buck is made in twelrc 
hours. L:>ko Jessup is near Lake Ilsirucy; it is 17 miles long 
nnd 5 miles widc^ but it is so shallow that it can not bo entered 
by a boat drawing more Ihun tliree foot of wflior. The Si. 
Joint’s rises In tbs elovated savanna before mentiuriccl, fully 
120 miles south of ICnterprise, but tourists aeMotn ascend 
farther than Luke Harney. 

i.VDi.\x nivf^n. 

from Titusville the steamer Rock ledge niakeH daily con¬ 
ned ion for City Point, ilerritt's Islam I, Cucoa, Uookledge, 
£an Crallie, and Melbourne^ vvltenee caniiecting steamers eon- 
tlniic tbe trifj to The Xarro^^ ti, Si. Lueie, Jupiter Inlet, and 
Lake Worth. (See [>agcH 


The Ocklawidiii huaU start from ihdatka at niiiD oYdock in 
the morning. The trip orenpiea all of one day nml one nigliL 
and until an eai-lj breal:last-hour of the sceurul tiny. The tlrst 
throe hcnirsof tlie trip arc occupied in going ut» the St, .lohn's 
to Wclaka, a point just opposite the moiiih of the <)ckhiwa3aj>. 
About midnight the boat piissea thruiigh “The Gateway of Iho 
Ooklawalut,” as it Is called. This is formed by two Inmienso 
cypress-trcfftj growing so close to each otlior tiuit ucarccly 
enougli room h left to allow' t!io boat to pass* About ihiy* 
light the boat turns suddenly to the rigbt^ and the cidehrated 
is entered. Here tlie stream beeomes a river one 
Imndrod feet in, w idth, and runs with a sw ift current, againwt 
wdiich these Jiminiitivo steamers mate laborious wmy for nine 
miles. The bottom is of wljite sand, and bo trimBfiarent are 
it.s waters that moasea and gra«^sea growing on the bottom, 
one hundred feet bcloiv, ran be seen distinctly. At the end 
of the “Run" the boat crosses tbe “Silver Spring” and 
uuchora at a wharf on Its farther shore* A row-boflt aw'uttii 



the tourist for the purpogy uf osplormg the wonderful siprin^ 
at kdatire* (See ]iage 101.) 



AltninonL Orimpro Co, I Alti^mont lloim, Frank A, Cofran, 
S:!.00 ti} $4.on.t 

Belkwicw. M;irLon Co*: jlotd Sanitaria. 

BrookHvilk'f IJenmudu Co, ; Heriiftndo IJokd, S"L50 to $3,00 i 
Grand View (lotek $2,00 to $2.50, 

Ccdjii' Liivj Co,: Sqwatincc U»td, $2.50 to $i,00. 
Comint, Siitiiter Co,: lloUtI Consult, $2,00 to $:i,O0* 

CresH‘ont City, Putnitui Co.; (irovo Jlal], $3.00; Putnain 
House, $5 00* 

Dayttma, Volusia Co*; Cleoan House, $2.50 to $3.00; Pal¬ 
metto Motel, $2.00 to $2.50. 

De Fiinirtk Sp^ng 1 ?^, Wniton Co.: Mmd Clmutauqua, $2.00 to 

Do Liimlj Volusia Co.: Carrollt^m llousto, $2,50 to $3.00; 
PjU’CclanJ JlEitel, $2*50 to $0.00; Putnam liouse^ $2.00 
to $3.00, 

Do I.CEKi Sjiritigs, Holmes Co.: Do Soto Mouse, $2.00 to 
$2 50* 

Fau Cjillio, aid Co.: Fati Gallie Mouse, $2*50* 

KnterprUe, Vnlusia Co.: Brock Mouse, $4.<>0, 

KuhIih,. Omu^re C'o.: KnsEtia $2.50 to $3.00 ; Ocklawaha 

Miitel, $2.50. 

Permiiuliuji, Na,^Hau CtJ*: F;;inont TTotel, $4.00* 

Fort Mason, Orange Co.: Lake View Hoiise. $2.50* 

* From llie " riilteti States. (oHielfli) Hotel Dhcctorv aud Tail road 
lutlicaiqi/' kuQxru as ihe '' Hotel Ped-Hook," Tnivclera’ PuLOkblas 
Coraiiaiiy.^ New York. 

f Kates giren are by ihe day* 



Fort George* DiiViil Co, : Fort Georgo ITotel 

Gainsville, Alacluia Co. : Arlington Hotel, $2.50 to $3.00: 

Roelioniont House, $2,50 to $3,00. 

Gulf Hammock, Levy Co*: Gull' ihLiimioek Hotel, $2.50 to 

$ 1 , 00 . 

Green Cove S]irings, Clay Co.: (Uiiremkm Hotel, $1.00; St, 
Clare Hotel, $3*00 to $-t.O0; The lliics^ $3.00; Morgnti^a 
Hotel, $1,50 to $2.00. 

InterlnclicPT Putnam Co-: Hotel Lagoiula; tnierlaelien Hotel, 

$ 3 . 00 , 

Jackflonvillet Huvnl Co.: The Kverett, $1.00; St, Jimicji, 
$t.OO; The Carletoii; $3*fM} to $t.00; The Huvjil, $3,00 
to $ LOO; Hotel Oxibnk $3.00 ; Hotol Togm, $3.00; Fre¬ 
mont House, $2.50 to $3.00; The GlenaduT $2,50 ; \\ itnl- 
sor Hotel* 

Key Westi Monroe Cn.: St, Jainea Hotel^ $3,00; Hiis^cll 
House, $2.50. 

Kissimmee^ Orange Co.; Troj>ienl Hotel, $3,00 to $4.00, 
Ki-imeL Orange Co,: Hotel Kismet* 

Lnily Lake, Sumter Co.: Lady I^ike lioitse^ $3.00, 

LakelamT Folk Co.: Fremont HoiisOt $2,50 to $3.00, 

Lake Helen, V'oltisli Uo,: llurlun Hotel, $2,00. 

Lcesbnrg, Sumter Co.: (iratul Central llotoJj $3.(i0; Lcca* 
burg House, $2,00 to $2.50. 

Live Oak^ Suwannee Co.: Ethel Homier $2.00 tt> $2.50; Live* 
Oak Hotel, $2.00 to $2.50. 

Longwoodt OmngeCo.: Waltham Hotel* 

jMadison Co.: Central Ihirk Hotel,, $3.00* 

Magnolia, Clay Co*: Magnolia lintel, $4.00* 

Maitland^ Orange Co.: Park House, 

Mayport^ Unval Co,: Atlantic Hotok $2.00 to $3.00, 
Monticello, JelTerson Co.: Madden House, $2.50; The Monti- 

New Smyrna^ YoluaiaCo*; Ocean House, $3*00. 

Oak Hill, Vnlmna Co.: Oak Hill Hotel, $4-00. 



Co*: Ot»la IIou^, $4.00: Aldred $2*50 

to $:L00; Montezuma IJotol^ $2,50 to $3*00, 

Orange City, Volusia Co.: i>o Ynrmim ll 0 Ui?e, $2.00, 

Orange SjiHngs^ Marion Co*: Globo Hotel $2*50 to $3,00. 
Ofiando, Omngo Co.: Cbark^tou Ilmise, $3.00; Magnolia 
House, $2.50 to $3.00; WiJcos House, $3.00; Windsor 

Pablo Heaelii Duval Co.: Miirniy Hall Hotel, $3*00 to $4.00. 
Pabitka, pLitiiatEj Co.: Putiuim Ilousc^ $4*00; Ssiratogn IJotel, 
$3*00 to$4.00 ; Ifotel PlKenis, $3.00 ; Hotel Palatka, $2.50 
to $3,00 ; Gi aliam House, $2,00 to $3.00* 

JVjisacula, Ksoaiiibia Co,: ContUiciital Hotel $3*00 to $4,00* 
iL.ivenswinxl Orange Co.: Xaylor House. $3.00, 
luoek LodgL\ lirevuFtl Co.: lJulel Iiidiaa IHverj $4.00; Tropi- 
eul Housl\ $2.50 to $3*00. 

f?t. Augiimine^ St. JoIiii’h Co. : Hotel San Marco, $4.00; Hotel 
Cordova; Magnolia Hotel, $3.00 to $4,00; Florida HoiisCj 
$3.50 to $4.(10; l\mco do Leon Hotel; Curlcton House^ 

St. *lanies City, Manatee Co, : San Carlos Hotel, 

SrtnfEird, Orange Co.: Sanlord Hoiise^ $4,00; San Lean Hatel, 
$2,00 to $2,50. 

Sarai4(jt,'i, Manatee Co. : Xew S,irasota House* $2.50 to $3.50. 
Seville. Volniiia Cy*: Grand View House; Hotel Seville, $* 3 , 00 . 
Silver S|iringfif Marion C'o.: Silver Springs Hotel $3*00* 
Spring Gardet]^ V^dusia Co,: Highland Park Hotel, 

South I,ake Weir, Marion Co*: Lake Side Hotel $2.50 to 

Talluliasjieet Leon Co.: New Leon Hotel $4.00; St. James 
lloiel^ $2,50 to $3.00, 

Tiirpon Springs, Ilillsborotigh Co.: Tarpon Springs ITolol. 
Tanipa^ Hilkhorongb Co,: Tlie Plant Hotel, $4.00; Palmetto 
Hotel $3-00 to $4.00; Orange Grove Hotel $2.00 to 
$1*00; St, James Hotel $2.00 to $3.00. 

Tangerine, Orange Co*: Wuehujjett House, $2.50 to $3.00* 


TflViiroSj Oriinge Co*; Tavares Hotelj to S3.C0* 
Umatilla, OraDgo Co*: Uriiatilln Houso, 

Waldo, Alachua Co.: Wuhlo House, $2.00. 

Wolaka, Putnam Co*: McCiuro lloUfO, $3.00, 

WollborHj Suwanneo Go. r White Suliiliur Springs Hotel, 

WelshtoD, Marion Co.: Hotel AVelshtoti:. 

WiQter Park, Orange Co.; Seminole llotn^c, $t.00. 


Acldahtado, 15, C7, 10 J. 
Africa, m, 168. 

Africans, 112. 

AgnHsiz, 60. 

Agrlciihural Collt^rro, 88, ]'28« 
Agricnltaral icnplccnciil?, 180. 
Agiiacalc, 51, IfiO. 

Akce, 168. 

Alabama, 84, 55, 61, 70, 
Alaminos, 8, 

Alaska, 110. 

Alcazar, 84, SC. 

Aleck Hojo, 24, 

Alexander A Ca, 182. 

“ AI Fresco,” 200. 

Alkn, Mr., 220. 

Alligator, 24. 

Alligators, 20S. 

Alligator penr, 51, 100. 
Allison, Governor^ 26, 
Alniond, 51, 176. 

“American C>'olop^cd^a,” 170. 
Ancient Mariner, 228, 

A delate, IOC, 

Andes, 16^. 

Aiionas, 51, IC-f, 162-164, 
Cbcrimolia, 103. 


^nonas, Glabra, 164. 
Muiicatn, 51, 102^ 
Reticubta, 164. 
Squamosa, 168^ 
Ai>pa1:iL-hiati Monntalus, 62. 
Appalacbk'ola^ 100. 

Ap]}le.t, 176. 

Arkansasl, 23, 56, 01, 76. 
Arpeika, 24. 

A^iatlcjj, 112. 

Aa sc-sC'ha-liO'lar, 24. 
Assiiiwor, 20. 

Atlantic CitVj 40. 

Allan llc/u^ilanilors, 112. 
Aizeroth, Mrs., 175. 
Augusta, 40. 

AuHtrallaiiA, 112. 

Austria, 112. 

Avocado pear, 61, ICO, 

Tlahamaif, 17, 44, 77, 00+ 
Baldwin, Dr., 32, 35, 69, 52. 
Bananas, 51, I4B, 150, 
BaibouT, Mr., 194. 
liar Harbor, 74. 

Barley, ICC. 

Barrancas, Fort, 14, 99. 



Uai^ingOT, L]ctitcii;a.i3it, 



Mr,, 150. 

iJnyp, 8, U, Cl, 91. 
Uig ??araFota, CL 
Uii^'ayncs tH. 

Gear IIter, 6^ 
Little ^arusuta, GI, 
LayuiJi Grande, 99. 
liuiirs, 220. 

Ucca, 204. 
llelgliim, 112. 
IjulkiKip, Ociictui, 21 
l td lev nc, 9S* 
ticrrnitiln, lUO, 
ISigClkicf, I2i. 
llig Wnlerj 29. 

ItiUy 24, 

IthiiLnl, Isle uf, 7. 
Uirdh, 220. 
i}i.-»cayiir, 207. 
llistnareli, 40. 

Black Dirlj 21* 

Blaek Drink] 24. 
lilotlgeL, Pr*, 52* 
Bloxhnm, Governor, 
Blue F|>rin|.'j<, JSL 
Bokenm, 112. 
lioijica, 7, 

Boomer’s land, 22G, 
lioi'digbcrii, IGd. 
Bosporns, 77, 
Boifiton, 10, 73, 71. 
Bourbons, 109, 
Boivlci^, Bltlv, 24. 
Urain-fag, 57. 


26, 2 

Branch, Goverrmr, 13. 

Brcad-ftnit, 1G9, 

Breckenridge, Minn.. 40- 
British America. 112. 

Broken hcaltli. 57- < 

Brooke, fjtr Phitip, 45, 

Brooks viUe, SO. 

Broome, (ioveitior, 25, 

B roomdi an dies, 139. 

Brown^ Governor. 23* 

Bndd, Professor, 1S5. 

Buildtng'tt'ood!!. JS9. 

Cabinct-TTOCMjs, 1S9. 

Ciicao, 170. 

talifomift* 29. 31. .">.5, 7G, 135. 
Call] Governor, IS, 

CatuosalialcUeo Bivei\ 32, 4 3, Cl. 
70, 94, 102, 1<>L 

“ Catiiiping and Cmii^iog In Pluii- 
da,^* 220* 

Canada, 72, 210* 

Canavcml. Cape, 42. 131* 

CatieSj woods for, 1 S&. 


Canavernl, 4 2, 131, 

Florida. 74, 94. 

IJattcrap, 4ti* 

May. 74, ei. 

KciTnano, 4 2, 

i^hk, €1, 9G. 

Coribbee Islands. 100. 

Carolina, 14, 15* 

Cassava. 203, 

CaGlc, 194. 

" Cattle-Fields of the Far West,^*' 



CattUiy 50. 

Ciiuiio, 7, W, 02. 

Cedar Kuyg^ 42, *17, 0O| ys, 

Contrul Amorica, 112, l5Sj 170. 
Ceres, 1 lU* 

Cession, 15,, 17* 

Charleston, 73. 

Charles Town^ 14* 

Charlotte Harbor, 32, 42, SO. 
CLattahooelice lUver, 70. 
Chcriiiioyer, 61. 

Chicago, 75* 

China, 112. 

Chiplcy, W, D., 201. 

Chipco, 12 L 
ChUiO'Tufltenuggee, 24. 
Chukalnskeo, 42* 

Cincinnatij 7S. 

Citraa fruits, 130, I3tf, 140. 
Citrua jraiK^niLra, 13S. 

City Point, 203* 

Clarke, S. C., 200* 

Clays, 0t. 

Clear Water Bay, 0, &. 

Climate, 33, 43, 48, 40, G£, 57. 
Climate-care, 62* 

Climatology, 5*3. 

C kin eh, General, 21. 

Cloctc, W* BroUeriek, 107. 
Coaeooehee, 21, 23, 24. 

Coahuila, 107* 

Coal, 65. 

Cocoanuts, 51, Otl, 141. 
Cocoaimt-grores, 142, 143. 
CoJTce, 175. 

College, AgricnltnnO, 83j 123. 

College, City, 35, 

;i XorinQl, 129. 
i Rollins, 120* 
j State, 04. 

• Cotorado, 34, 21U 
Comptlc, 203. 

Concha, 95. 

Coiici'ctc, tS7f 
Confederate States, 26. 

’ ConncelEeut, 31, 6C. 

" CariSLimption, SB, 66* 

Contini, C. G., 133. 

Cooperage-woods, IS9. 


Coritlline, GT- 
Coral H, 208* 

Corclo^Q, Hotel, 07, 

Corn, 104. 

Cotton, 132. 

I Cowford, 77. 

Cows cross!tig over, 77, 

Creeks, 25, 117. 

Cfc-nccnt hako, 31. 

Ci^slsy, 0. in, 113. 

Cuba, 3, 9, 10, 63, 95, 112, 113, 

Curtiss, A, IL, 42, 137, 103. 
Cn5itn,rd*iipple, &1, 164, 

j Bade, Major, ID, 2L, 

Baric massacre, 19. 

Baily Umon,*^ 1IG* 

Dakota, 34, 76. 

B’Arriola, 14. 

Date-palm, 164, 

Bate-plnmi, 1C 3. 

I David, Mr., 141* 



DaviJ, Juhn^ 1-1. 


Deaf, Du nil), and Dliud InalHutc, 


Deallrfuttf!] S5, 

De JJarv, BL 
De Cordova, 8. 

Deer, 217, 

Do Fiiiiiak Lake, 3L 
De rLiiiiak t4|>nr]r:Ni^ liO. 

De Courges, 13. 

De Land,, 80, 120, 

De T/iiiJ L'uiveijsily, 129. 

Dc Leon, Ponee, 7, 6, 2i\ 07, fi4, 


De Lima, 11. 

Deincroni, 171. 

De N'liJ^vaez, 8. 

Dcnii^giH Dr,, 02. 

Detiinarli, 112. 

Den lie it, Colonel, 197. 

De Ortiii, Juan, 9, 

Dc Keinoro, 97, 

De Soto, 9, 10. 

De Vnea, Cabe9a, 9, ^9. 

Diinick, hi X,, 139. 

I)ij:eoveiies, 7. 

Diviiiiioiis, 41^ 

Down i^uth, 82. 

Dratnage, 04, 09, 192. 

Drake, Sir PrLiiicii!i, 13. 

Drew, Govenaor, 29^ 27. 

Dry Tortugas, 32. 

Dubois, E>, 152. 

Ducksj ivlidj 219^ 

Dii9utli, 40. 

DLimmUt Grove, 13U 
Duueant Sir 10. 

’ Dunedin, 100, 107* 
j Dunn Drotlicrs^ grove, 133. 
Durian, 171. 

Dualins, IB. 

Duvpl, Governor, 18, 

Easter-SundaTi 7, 20*. 

Ea^L Ftonda Seminary, 128. 

East India, 173. 

Eaiun^ Governor, IB. 

I Ean Gallie, 88. 

I Eden, 90, 147* 

Eduealiou, 127, 

1 Eg>|)t, B4* 
i KL DoradOj 8, 9, 

I Emathin, £4. 

England, 59, 112* 

Engravci'fl^ blocks, 199. 
Enter|)ln£e, 81, 

Eocene, BO, Cl. 

Eripirite Santo, 9, 

Eustis Lake, 31* 

Evans, Jame^^ 143* 

EvergladeSi 30, 31, 47, 53, C9, 71, 
93, 94, 117. 

EsuuTsiona, 31. 

, Exposition, subiropk'Cilj 77j 79* 

Paeis about Flontla, 291, 
I'nirbauks, 7, 18, 19* 

Fall Drools, 35. 

I'eiicin", limbers for, 190. 
FemnndiDth 32, 42, 45, 72, 73, 

Field k Osborne, 14 S* 



Figfi, 50, 17S. 

Finmngcr, 157- 
FL^h bu-'inosit, 205, 

tU\ 212, 215. 

. Fiihin;^, 200, 

fisliliig groiindfl, 215. 
yi ah itig-t [ick] Cj 21 iV, 

Flint-rock, HQ. 

Flcal?, 190. 

Fioorin;^, 100, 

FlonOa foicl^, 110. 

Florida for toitHsL?, 104. 

Florida Frillt Ejcchangci, ISl. 
Florida ITnircr.'iity^ 12S. 

Formofaf Inland df^ 47, 

I'ort Barraiu-a**, II, 00. 

Cnrlo^j M, 

Carolitii?, 11-1-1, 

(jcorgc l^lundf H7, 

M.'^irion, fit. 

Myers, 70, 104, i Vi, 111. 
Pickens, 15, 00.^ 

San Mai™, G7, B2, 8Ji. 

Sab Pk 

Fos-^ilfl, 59. 

Fountain of Yontlit 57^ 

France, 11, 60, 112, US, 152, 

FranccBO-'?, 12* 

Fruit Exchange, i^l, 

FruUa. 49, 51,13B, 1 ej4, 167, 109, 

Fruits, aeniktropieal, 4S, 40. 
Fruits, subtropical^ BO, 2W* 

Fuck 190, 

Furniture-woodSf IBS. 

Gainesville, I2S. 

Galoeio, 111, 

Game, 91, 217, 230* 

Gartieniug, 109. 

Ganleuins in Florida, 15J. 

(jarey, ilr,, 14 I. 

Geography, 28. 

Ocolog)^, 59- 
George, Lake, 31. 

Georgia, 15, 34, 5G, 75, 151, [QQ, 
1S2, 103* 

Geniiiaiiy, 11J. 

Gleason, 83, 

GoiUit, 195* 

Gonanks^ F. A*, 180* 

Gopher, 207* 

Gowso, Mr., I(>2. 

<J[Jvc^no]'^t, 25, 2i;l. 

Gmins, 101, iSJil. 

Grampus, 222, 

Clrniivl poiMilulilies, 154* 

Grant, Juine^, 16, 

Grape-fruit, 50- 
(irapes., 40, 152, 

Great Hiitain, 15-17. 

Great Father at Waslilugtnit, 22- 
Greece, 112. 

Greeks, 13* 

Green I-'oto Spriugn, 87. 

Gruve&* See GocoAJteTH and Gr* 

GuBnabena, 51, 1G3* 

Giiava^i, 50, 54, 155, 150* 

Gulf of Meitlco, 41, 70, BO, 08, 

102 * 

Gulf Stream, 44, 45, 47, fiO, 52, 
63, 9C, 93, 06* 


Gmi-stockf^, 105. 

Guayacjuil^ ICS. 


IfuUfas Hivcr, 32. 
Ilsillcck-TusU‘nug^':ccT 2't- 

IJamjnoii Bprin^, C3. | 

Ilanl vi, I puly, 82, 

Uam==, J, A j 132. 
lJart» (iovcrtior, 2G. 

Hart GrovCf ISS. 

Ilai'twig, ICO. 

Havana^ IG. 

Health, 52, 71* 

Hcllprlii, GO,. 

Helen Hnrcoiirt^ HI, 

Eienry, t’rofcflj?or, 37. 

HenHliiilIf Dr,, 04, 211, 210 


Hk'key, JoliTi H., 70. 
llilHboroui'h liWcr, 32, SI. 
HiiTihigiui, 0. 
lliattiry, 7, 
lIoK^, 108. 

Iftiliittcc ilieeo, 25. 

Ilu'le-wrt-piip^ 12S* 

Hiillaml, 112. 

Honio^s^a IHrerf 32, 104. 
llotjdnri.v*, liiO. 

Honey I 201. 

Hori^di, Mr., 147. 

Horses, 108. 
llofipctaikL'C, 24. 

Hotel Cordova, 87, 

Huguenotd, 11-13. 

I llumboldt, 16L 
I HuTiddity, 35, 40. 
lluming, 217* 

Idaho, SI. 

I llliboiii, 34 , 5 C. 

litindgracits, NorMicvn and for¬ 
eign, 110. 

Immigrants, Soulbem, H 9. 
Immignitjon Associalion, 79. 
fjicdh, 123. 

India, 112, 157, IOC, 108. 

I Indiana, EG, 

' Indlauapolift, 7&. 

Indkm Archipelago, ICS. 

Indian Kiver, S3, 80, 88, 90, 131, 
133 . 

Indian llivcr Inlet, 43 , 45 , 40 * 
Indians, 117. £%c^£uikole. 
[luhiHtrlnl features, CS. 

Insects, 223 , 224 * 

Instiuitc for Deaf, etc., 128. 
Interior fiin^h, 190, 
low a, 5C, 70. 

Ireland, 112 * 

Iron-ore, Cl. 

{ Islands, 31. 
i Alncliaii 32, 

Anasta^iia, 32. 

I , . ^ 

] Citmberlflad, 1G6* 

Dry Tortugas, 33. 

Fovrnofin, 47. 

Key Largo, S2. 

Key Wcit, 32. 

MerritCs, 35, 

^anta Rosa, 15, 31, 32* 

Ten Thousand, S3. 



Itfily, il'2, 113, 1S4. 

Ire?, A. ^1,, 131. 

Jacques, Dr.^ Gi, 

Jack'fruit, 172, 

Jackson, General, 17, 18,21, 124, 
JacksoDTillc!, 34, 40, 73, TO, 78, 
80, 82,87, HO, H2, 06, 00.118. 
Jamaica, 160, IGL, 183. 

Japan fmrsiiiinioii. 18S. 

Japan plum, 49. 

Jny^ Ilamillon. 116,. 

Jehnsun, Dr., 52. 

Jujube, 50, 176. 

Jumper, 21. 

Jupiter lulqt, 45, 46, 88, OO, 03, 
OS, 142, 

Jute, 186. 

KanifO-H, 34, 56, T6. 

Kaolin, 64. 

KeiFFcr pear, '19. 

Kentucky, 56. 

KenwoHhy, C. J., 4(J, 52, 57, 135, 1 
209, 215. 

Key Largo, 31, 32. 

Keya, 32, 43, 161. 

Key West, 32,35, 40, 74,04, 104, ' 
114, 162, 160, no, IBi, 205, 

Kmgaley, 100. 

Rissiminco, 30, 94, 104. 

Kisalmiuee Like, 80, 31. 
Kissimmee River, 32,94. 

Knight, Ifr.j 147. 

Knight, V. 0., 195. 

Eost, Dr., 59, 63, 65, 68. i 

Kmemer, JnTnes M*, 53, 
Ktitnquai, 136. 

\ KurunJa, 172. 

Lake City, 128. 

Lake rcgluii?, 50. 

Lakes, 20-^19.1. 

Apopka, 31. 
nLifTnm. 3L 
Crcscotit, 31. 

He Kimiak] 33, 

East Tohopckaliga, GO. 

Eustiii, 31. 

Frcjih IVator, 91. 

Goarge, 3 ]. 

Jlarris, 101, 
lanmnia, 31. 

Istokrogn, 34. 

Kissimmee, 30, .11. 
MiccnsLikec^ 31. 

Monivic, 31. 

Okeechobee, 20, 69, 94, 06,102 
102 . 

OrcLijgc, 31, 1.12. 

Banin Fl!i, 31. 

ToKopokulijipi, 31. 

Worlli, iS, 71. Uf>, 02, 00, 143 
162, 170, lOI, 

LaniLsharks, 105, 226. 
Tjuiidonui^re, 10, lU 
Lawson, Dr,, 52, 01. 

Lc tontc, Dr.p 52. 

Leesburg, 10 L 
Lemons, 50, IBG,^ 

Lente, Dr,, 62, 

Levers, 190. 
lichee, ITB^ 




Limcp, &0, fil, 140, 1(17. 


Linrmous, 170* 

Lncke, E. 0., 

Lojiaiit Dr.^ Ii2. 

I.otrjljarth', 163. 

I^oiidioi]^ US. 

Ilronch, Vtj 8L 
Loji 35. 

Louislatm^ Up, J7, £0, 34, 50, 01, 
70, J97. 

Lowe, Jolin, H2. 

Lumber, 130, 

Liitemnd?, 13. 

Liixoinburg, 11 2, 

Macemb, Geiietal, ?K 
McHfio, JliHfl, 38. 

MftgJiolin, 37. 

llotd, 37* 

SliiiiiO, fO. 

Makik, 5’2, 71* 

^liilnv, I71 h 

ii* ^ 

Maniev, 100. 

Mmirnala and W'iiilC^r Bird.^ of 

Ea;*! Florida,” 220. 

Mainuice, 51, I5tb 
Maintnco 100. 

Mfvuatco, 50, 100, 170+ 

Maiiiitoc, 231- 
Manutoc River, 60, 

MaiuUirin, 87, ITS. 

Mango, ul, 157. 

MuTjgoKtwTi, Cl, 159, 

Matiiivillc, Mr,, I4l. 

Marble, 00. 

] Mariatia, 05. 

' Mariauues, 9. 

Marietta, 309, 

Marl, 04, 

Marmalade-tree, IGO* 
Marlin, M., 153. 

Mari'iti, Governor, 20* 
Maniand, CG. 

I Massadiusolta, 31, C6, 21]. 
; Mas-'acre, D.ide, ISI. 

' Ma^todous,^ 59- 
Mataom-S 12. 

Matthews grove^ 133+ 

May port, &0, 87. 

May River, 11, 67* 
Medicinal bark,% 101. 
Mediterranean, 40* 
Mclbonmc, 88* 

Menendejc, 10, 13, IS, 07. 
Mentone, 40* 

MerritFa [inland, 35, 

Jle^ico, 9, 10, 70, 77, 112 

Mexico, Gulf of, 03. 

Miami, 71, 92, 03, 00, 144. 
Miami Jlivcr^ 121+ 
Micanopy, 24. 

Mkeasukee Lake, 31* 

*Mieco, 24. 

Mkea'^ukee?', 25, 117. 

! Michigan, 56, 

.Millvicw, 80. 

Milton, Governor, 25, 
j Mineral naiere, 07. 
i Mitmcfola, 53, 76. 

I Minorcans, 16, 

[ Miocene, GOj 61* 




Mississippi 5S, Cl, 76. 
^iissiesippi iUver^ &, in, 14, 2Sj 
44, (j2, 

Missouri, AC. 

Monroe, 81* 

Montana, 84* 

31oiit.tan.o, 1C. 

Moon?, Mfp, III* 

Jlooro, Governor, 14, 

Morphia, 20 i* 

Morijs alha, 184. 

MorLiJ3 Ja[)Otiica^ 184. 

Moms inuUicaulii ISI* 

Mogolojt Governor, 2C. 
Mosquitoes, £28. 

Moss, loii^r, 40, 4 7, ?)£. 

Mounds, 104, 105. 

Mountain^ Table, 23. 

)[ounC VVliitncy, 23* 

Mulberry, 164* 

31iirat, 28. 

3hirictLa, 35. 

Murray Hall, 81. 
ilugcogees, 117. 

N'nples, King of. 93. 

Xnrmws, The, 90* 

Nassau, 40, 

Nebraska, 34, 70* 

Nccld, Mr., 157. 

Negroes, 19, U3* 

New Engbnd, 18, l!>, 28, 72* 
Nevr Dampsliirp, 5G. 

New Jersey, 50. 

Now Orleans, 21, 78. 

Noh- Mexico, 55. 

Newport, 74. 

Newport [Springs, 03. 

' New Sniynia, 10, 

Now York, 34, 50, 72, 73, 75* 

Nonna] C<d]e"e, 12&, 

Notris, J. lUrt, 133. 

North CaroHfia, 50, 193. 

Northorn I'lniidu, 29, 42', 40, 145* 
Norway, 112, 

Nutmeg, 171. 

Oar?, wooda for, 191. 

Oats, 185. 

Ocean (irovc, 81. 

Ocean routes, 72, 73. 

Oeilla Ibvcr, 32. 

Ocklawali:i River, 32, 109, 101. 
Ockiokonee River, 32. 

Ogletliorpc, Govern or, 15. 

Ohio, 34, 50, 

Okeecliobi'e clriiiiiiige, 54, 00, 192. 
OliecchohiB Lake, 29, 30, 31, 09, 
91, 00, 102, 182. 

Old Aleck, 124, 125* 
j Old rcpjiknt?, 198. 

Oligoeene, 01. 

Olives, 175. 

Olusiee, 71. 

Opium, 208. 

Orange licit, 43,134,135,145,152. 
Orange-enlturc, 13,5, 
Oraiige-eiilturc in California, 135, 
Orangq-quUilrc m Florida, J33. 
Orange-groves, 131-133. 

Orange Lake, 31, 132, 

I Orange Park, 87. 

^ Orange-quince, 370, 



Orange?!, 130-133. 

Oregon, 34, 76. 

Orlando, 101* 

Osborne, Field 143, 

Osceola, 24, 125. 

OLiilkee, 24. 

Otulko^'l’hlocko, 25. 

Overland routes, 73. 

Oiford, 77* 

Oi-yotea, woods for, liJl. 
Oysters, 20j. 

PnWo Dcacli, 74, 80, 81. 

Faljitka, fiO, m, 

Fn Icon I ologj', 50, 

FalTncT, Dr., 62* 

PAhn-Saiiday, 7, 

Panthern, 220. 

Papaw^p 173* 

Pa per pulp, 101* 

Paper Iruvnsi, 220. 

Paris, 50, 1(V3, 207. 

Pnst’ofTer, 24. 

Pasc'Lia I' tonda, ?. 

PoafC River, 32. 

Peach, 175. 

Honey, 175. 

Poeu4'o, 17&. 

Pears, 151* 

Pecan, 170, 

Pccu-To peach, !75* 

PcndKTton Ferry, SO. 
Pelicihwood, 191. 

Pennsylvania, 56* 

Pensacola, 14, 15, 17, 60, 99, 201, 
Peoples, 108, 

People's Line, 81. 

Periy, Governor E. A,, 20, 27* 
Perry, Oovci nor Madisoiii 25. 
Peru, 103. 

Fesip, 223. 

I Philadelphia* 73, 
j Pickol, Profe&sor, 64. 

Files, 101. 

Pineapples, 144-146* 

I Pinellas. 106, 107, 157. 

PDLaeli1o>niit, 177. 

1 Plant System, 80. 

Pleiocene, 60. 
l^lcistoccne, C^>. 

Poealionias, fl* 

I Poland, 112. 

I Polynesia, 160. 

! Pohicgrnnale, 50s 1^7^ 

I Ponce ile Leon Hotel, 84. 

I Poppy, 203. 

Population, 108. 

Port Royal, 11, 

Post-tcrlinTy, 60. 

Poultry, 198, 199. 

Poway, 35. 

Pourhaton,^ 0* 

Product ion Ei^ 130* 

Pullman care, 74, 75. 

Panta Gonla, 80, 93, 94, 9B. 
Piinta Rasii^a, 40, 104. 

Qiiineei?, 1 76. 

Railway-lies, 191* 

Railway Routers 229* 

Ramie, 186. 

Koasoner ProthcTB, 49, 50, 14&, 
158, 162, 163, 166, 176* 



Rcconstruclhon, 25. 
l{cd BlufFj 35. 

Rccd, Gtjvcrnori I S^, 20, 2G. 
ItonaissancCf S-1. 

Reptiles, 225. 

RcstoratioE, 2G. 

Retrocession, 17, 

Kevolulion, Amcriciinj IG, 

Rhode Island} 50. 

Ribault, 11} L2. 

Rice, 102. 

Richards, Hi'., H7* 

Rio d’AiS}83, 

Ub CarabollC} 207* 

Rio Grande, 10, Id. 

RUer^i, 10-131* 

Alalia, 32* 

Appnlacliicok, 32. 

Ashley, Id, 03. 

CaloosahatchcC, 32, 01, 70,01, 
101, 143. 

Chaitohoocliec!, 70. 

Clilpola, 32* 

Cooper, 03. 

Hillsborough, 32, 81. 
Homosas^a} 32, 104. 
Kissimmee, 32, Od. 

Manatee, 32, 00, 175* 
ilny, 11, 87, 

Miami, 32, 121. 

JRasisaippi, &, 10,1 i, 28, id, 02. 
Ocilla, 32. 

Ocklawaha, 32, 100, lOl, 235* 
Ocklokonee, 32. 

Peaoo, 32. 

St. John's, 10, 11, 30, 32, 40, 
ei, 87, 101, 134, 231, 

RiTer?} Ft. Mark's, 32, oft. 

Sr. Plan's, 31, 32, 42. 
S^ebastian, ld7> ISO. 

Siiwannoe, 32, 102, 105, lOS* 
Wakulla, 32, I (JO, 
Wilhlacoochee, 32, 80. 

Rock Ledge, 7d, 88* 

‘ Rocky Mouoiains, OL* 

( Rogcl, Rmli c, WY* 

, Rollers and bealings of mnchin- 
; cry, 101* 

Uolliiis College, I2y* 

Roman batbs, 80* 

Roinatio, Cape, 42, 

Ron tea, oecnn, 72. 

Routes, overland, 73. 

Russell, A. J*, 127* 

Riisflia, 112, 

KuH.Hian baths, 80. 

Kye, 11>5. 


S^aernmento, 3.5. 

Saddle-trees, 191. 

Sahara, h38. 

St, Augustine, 7, 10, 13, Ift^ 30, 
07, 71, 82, 87, 07, 128* 

St. John’s lllufT, ll. 

St. Louis, 70. 

St* Luis, Fort, 38. 

St. Lueic, 42,0t>. 

I St. Mark’s, 15. 

St. Paul, 40, 75. 

Sam Jones’:, 21 . 

Sand-lands, 0@, 14d. 

Sandstone, CO. 

Satidford, 35, 6L JOl, 123, 137. 
Sander kh-islaadcrSj 112. 



Piirt Marc.o, 67, 62t 
Situ Marco llok'l, S7^ 

San Mateo, 

Santa Lake, 51. 

Santa Maiia, 11, 

Saiila Uo.^a le^lnraj^ 51^ 52. 

SapoiJniUf 51, IGK 
Snpolc^ 101. 

Sjiraiioia, 74. 

Ha rn toga, 71. 

Hiii^annati, 73^75- 
Sdjtwls, 1-7. 

Scotland, 112. 

Sebastian Hivcr, ISO, 

SeoCi^sion, 20, 

Sccoffjio, 21, 117. 

Seem Bit, Pr, 163* 

Scmniolc^, 17t £1, 24, I'M, 107, 
117» 120, 125. 

Seminole warp, 18,. 25, lOl. 

Hcnii tmj^if.'Al Florida, 2W, 40, 45,, 
no, KJl, 104. 

ScUlcmont, 12. 

Sharks, laud, 220. 

Sheep, 190, 

Shells, 208. 

Shenandoah Valley, 75. 

Shingles, 101, 

Ship- nud boal-biijilLiing, 101. 

SlioedaiitP, 101* 

Shiiule-*, JPl. 

Sj|k, 133. 

Silver Spring, 100. 

Silver Spring Run, 100. 

Si.^al licinp„ JSfi. 

Slavery, 108, 113, 114* 

Smith, John, 0. 

Siiiitbaonirtn Reports, 107. 
Snakes, 225, 

Soil^f G8. 

South America^ 77, 112, 115. 
■South Curoliiia, 10, 11, 14, 56, 
1S2, J93, 

Spain^ 15-17, 112. 

Sjmuldiug, 14 L 
SpanJ^Li Mail}, 13. 

Spear grove^ 133. 

Spencer^ Mr*, 175* 

Spoiigep, £07. 

S]xiriing, £09. 

Spraeiue, Captain,, 25. 

Spl^Cltt grove, 132, 

Hpi ing (iurden, 133* 

Springs, 08, 129, 
lUiie, SO, 81. 

De Fiinlak, 129. 

(1 pccn Cove, 68^ 67. 

Hampton,. G8. 

K'cwporl, 00. 

Silver, 30, 1(M>, 

Stitt'airncc, 66* 

Tarpon, 74, 81. 

Wakullu, 100, 101. 

White Sulphur, G8* 

State, £5* 

State College, 64. 

State Goveniorfl^ 25, 

Sleamfs Onvemor, 26. 

Strawborries, 77, 178. 

Subtropicnl Florida, 20, 43, 4C, 
43, 50, 09, 93, 117, 154, 

j Sugar, 193. 

Sugar-apple, 61, 168. 



SuwaQnec Ri^cr, 33, 43, TCj 103, 

Swamps, 00. 

Sweden, 113. 

SwItzcHEind, 113. 

Table ^loutitain, 30. 

Ta^o, 07. 

Tait, J, Schi'in, 105. 

Talhibnflseo, Ift, 34, 07, 110, 12S, 
152j SOL 
Tallahassee^, 35. 

TamarinJ, Gl, 106. 

Tampa, 00, 74, SO, 07, 100. 
Tampa Bay, 0, 10, 21. 

Tan-bark, 103. 

Tanyah, 302. 

Tavarcsi, 80, LOl. 

Tea, 175. 

Teiiiporature, 33. 

TetmeBsee, 50, 61, 75, 70. 

Ten Thousand falands, o3. 
Terxilorial GovcrnorHj 18. 
Temtory, 17, 16. 

Tertiary, CV^OL 
Texas, 55, 56, 61, 70, 103. 
“Texas Bloekman,” 103. 

Thames, 50. 

Theobronjfl, 170. 

Thomasvitle, 76, 153. 

Tif;er-Tah, 24. 

Ti cs, 51, 

Titusville, SO, 33, &6. 

Tobacco, 178. 

Tobactm-boreg, 1&2. 

Tobacco Company, 170. 

Tocoj, 30. 

Tohnpoksliija LeiIcc, Si. 
Teahhamlleg, 02. 
Tornadoes, 58, 

Tnitle.Wi iiuU, 47- 
I Travel, 73. 

Turlmn, 120, 

Turkeys, wild, 210. 

Turkish baiUs, 80. 
Turnhull, Dr., 16, 

. Tiii'tle-c^'RS, 31*6. 

Turtles, 206. 

, Tyndall, Prufeesor. SS, GO. 

Van Demati, E. B., SO. 
Vartiadoe, Ca|itaiii, 162, 
Vegetables^ 2on. 
Vegetables, yields of, 202. 
Vera CriiiJ, 11 . 

V^crmnnl, 56. 

Vcstihuled cars, 74. 
Virginia, 14, 43, 50, 75. 
Von .Mtiller, 166. 

YuclU Abajo, 180. 

Waeca Pahlku, 77, 
Wnddell, James A., 14G. 
Wagons and carriages, 103. 
Wakjlla Sprln;^^, 100, LOl, 
Waldo, 134, 175. 

Wales, 112. 

Walker, Governor, 26. 
Washington, 21 . 
Waahingion talk, 134. 
Wayerosfl, 73, 76. 

Way Key, 03. 

V/ealher Bureau, 33. 
Wcc-la-ka, 30. 



WcM Florida Seniitiaiyj 129. 
West Indies, 17 ^ 08, IdO, IttO, 171’ 
West Vir^jjiia, 34, 5C. 

Wheat, 105. 

Wheel-stock, 102. 

White, J. a, 21). 
lYhltner, Profciasqr, l5l, liiS, 
ICP, 173, 173, 202, 

Wliitiicy, Moiml, 20. 

Wi^Tvanj, 118* 

AViltJ tats, 24, 220. 

WaUkins, 18* 

Williams and Warren, 145. 
Wilson, agent, 124. 

Wilson, Ur., 52- 
Wines, 152, 153. 

I Winter Park, 129. 
i Wintbrop, W. W,, 203, 

' Wipconstn, 56. 

WithlaixKtchee River, 32, 80* 
lYuodon shoes, 102. 
W^oodenware, 102. 

Worth, OcRcral, 21, 23, 07. 
lYortli, Lake, 42, 194, 

\Yy-o-iJiee, 110, 123. 

Yaek-fmit, 172. 

Yankee settlers, 112. 

^'lelds of Vegetables, 202, 

Youth, Fomitatn cf Fcr|>e:ual, 

Yucca, 186. 



AND CANADA. <-'ofrjiMUil vn Ibc itlan olTlSiy famouB HAiiniKhli lUsiv 
BooKM of EuroiK:. WUli n.uiiseroiiii Mujiu and Iblutlraiioiiii, Iia tliiwu ecp* 
amtu form!*; 

Oke V'tjUJiiE Comi'letk. IShso, Monicfo mck^ 


SOUTIlEULf A SI* WKSTEliJf tjTAttS. ] Vul, 

thtf CoutJDtnt of btirop-e, KjfVjil, A Anuria, atiil tlic Holy l#aiid. 

Illui'trallolitf, nnd a Vocabnkirj'of Travt-l-TaJk to Kiip-llBh, Ocniiiui, t miidi. 
and Itnilaii. Tivu Tolf.. 15mo. ^lorocro, fl<sllds>. gill odiit??, fb.oa HSUwr 
votnciiQ Bold ee;)ttniitoiyi ia.Oi) cncli^ 

Voi. 1. Bnifland, Walei^. ificDtIaiid, rt-fr^anil, Fr»nfi% TlfTpliim, and Rollajul, 

VoL. IL SwUzerlatinl, fieniiany* Italy. Spain* Tortrtpil. Itn-sla, Ihbioirk. fiar- 
WH>\ Sive4ti-u. Gwtice* KjfyH, A]g^^rtB, and Hio Hul>' Luntl. 


SoltTS. Hciii« » Co[ij|]lcto Uiiidf to Soulliom fDltfiiriiiii. By 
LiSti|.RT, .M.D.* and -I. l\ Widnkv, A. M. I>. U'ltli MiJ|m and niniu^roil* 
IlliiHtraltoiJi. rJ;no. Cloth. f'J.Cfl, 

APPLETONS^ GUIDE TO MEXICO; vUh n rha|itcr on iiehlIi tonla, 
otid an i2iLRll>i]i-!^i;*anl.-tli VoralnihiTy. I!y Ai erkP K. Coski isu. WIiIj i 
Rjllway Mop and Hlu»lralJuai. isiino. tlcitlii f-ii tX*. 

Contalnlnj; PncUtal lorormaihm rcijardli**; ClImHH;, Boll, niift I'mitncihum; 
CltkB^ Towns, and Scenery and Beaorint The Cnlttiro of tho Ximnjjo 

and otticr Troiilcal Frnlt*; Fannliitr and (^artltiilnKI Sp“rti«; IbmEfft of 
Travet. ete^ By Oeoiioe M. fiARBoniL XVUh Map and iiLnunrona tllniim- 
tiona. ijma. Clutlii $1.50. 


Mn|ie ami [llaAtratlca**'. Ltfi'C ItiniiU. paper, lj.O cvnia. 

S 0RT3, For ToarlAi;* ami 1 nvalid WHb &1 apa and 1J tu itra 11 1 u a. ] 3n i o. 
l^aper, £[) ccnla. 

NEW YORK ILLUSTRATED. Ccnialiilns; It?* TITtiftraHonJunl StncE 
Scenes, Build Inc*, nivor VIqwp. and olher FtctTiTCfttiie Ptaitirca of ihe ^^rcui 
Melropolls. XX'lth Mtpa. Larcd S^a Paper, 7&cunt!*. 

CINITY, An AlphaliK*tlC'*ily Afranjfed FinRs to all Place#, fioclifUea, Initi* 
Eniiona. Ainn»eii]eni:i >4 etc. WUh Mapa. I'aiidr, IJOcimta. 

D. APPLE TON d CO., PuUi^hers, New Tcrk. 



KIN(lI>0.\r, A l^tiidy uf Its L'hiliziition oihI PosstbilitiCJi. \V'tTii 
A ^lUAHCK AT Javas. IJy IUt;Kisos \VlLso^^ l;Uo ^lujor- 

Ttiilod Suiijj Valiinteci s, and, Ercivt t ilnjof-Ucneml I'liiutl 
Army. IdiiioK Clol^i, $I.5U. 

l!y -Inns JJki.l iini'TON, fluttior of “lionnd tlio litock." liluio- 
Clothj Dninittciiited tiovci, Ilitaj^iaD 4'21 $U50. 

"Th!H ircfilnl IXMik frive^ t(ip flr>sl imlv .Imerloin view of |£iii(1 of NilnKute 
and Nf)?f]hEi!i. Ttio siurlior t!)c|5t!i-utt mtcl pliiyrn3(y rldicitfus tiae ctitrviit Kn^'ll-ti 
of IIJ«f epiciirciiii cirtnjit n»r hilo-laid oaal of 

iti“ cinplru [ttcIndiM* tiiiivrly i very cruiiirry of Kiiroiii!. J!r korpH on iFio track of 
*<i Iko ciniiforlfl ami n^^pilriNt liy AmETl^nii IravvltTH^. TtniriKtii wEll llm] 

tkn vialiniD^n laoon *:i>rii[aar,ion. Ifur it ii$ tio to llioiac whu 

••lay al Ii^iiie.^ uikI travirl only by iKaok.'* 

UKAKll.i rm CONDITIOX AND PRO:=PnCTf?. By C. C. Amiiekw^ 
«i'Cnn:$ii] (jcn*^ettl to ; fornitirly U. S>. Alinkier to Noi'way and 

iSwcdon. Idinq, Ctoib, Sl.faO. 

TKNTSt PoifriTory^ Voyngff to nnzil. OrtlMJ! to Ui>l|^ckccplOf. Rio 
iliirl h> IVopIr. Life Miiuiaer^. '('Jn!: I'mjtcror of ItnizU. Tijiita—FeiEni Ho- 
iill.'L nuiturn, amt t'llnmcc. AiiicricfLi^Rnizilian ECtdalioup. Trip 

liilHi tiac ljit,cilo^ Vij-li lu It Ci:!in^i,'-P]aiiti 4 l 1 oi]. J'lsblit; ItiKtriEcnoiiH LocatlAri- 
iitlrtlNErition. IlirllaTnentiiry tiHVcniim-iit^ Rra 7 J 1 iiin Litcraliari'. AtEricultnrc 
and hiUttk rtilii.liia'- 'J'In' Aniuzuii Vnlh'y. Ilcni^li* of Pri'y^ Salftvt'ry and Eiuanci- 
patiDaa. Ttic Orders. Public Ciiidti and Iminf^nitaoD. 

1 ltOi]H* i nyny lyc able l<i prcRont soino factK Sii rcp|ii'ct to tlic prcseiyt ^Etciatlnn 
of flnizH yvl(ti;;b ydiT be lM>fh (Tifirticiive mid ciitcriAiiiEiat; ttiirfiivral ivadcre. My 
itfcCftihKof rii-<i"jiaiui;^n.Ert!- wldi lltiat c^miEire urc pr1rici |»a]ly ileravcrl ffoai a riEriilmicc 
of Elirre vearty at Icln do Jaiiciry<>. it« rA|)lia1. tvlillt^ cmployorl iu the Her? fee of Ilic 
riiihid Stsiti!^ Ctovertnm'iir^ durloff h^bEcli parlod I matlO A row jounivy q luto the 
liutifrEor.''—/'nfriM f/itf 

A CTIIDT or Airxico. Dy Davit* A. Wells, LL. D., D. C, L. 

12iiao, Cloth, SI.OO; paper covor^ 50 eoiua. 

■“ Mr^ WrITf'p abow Ene I* csirrmnly intcrc-ilinpr* oni Its value 1 b great. Noll]log 
like It Ijjib bcnii pEiOtiHlLCLl in Eiaauy yeai-e,’"—.Vf se JptA 

*■ Mr^ WcOh ?kctc!ic>^ hmadiv Irat in ftriu ilTinu Jlesico'u pliyBira] pen^nrapbv, 
her nre liilaT-rfifniiCCH iioHlicAl hiRtoryt aociiil evudUiou, and prtfrciii jjuV'Cmnu'U'l." 
—Xifc I'-Tifr Krenipff I^L 

*■ Scvcra,] (‘ITiirrt* have liern ryndc to patSsfy the (:rroiviriL''(lcfiEre for iuformmiuiii 
relAthii; t« !^SllCe lbn| eftuinry be^coiitc conuecred by lall'^nyp tiao 

l'tiEti''d t^TAtCB. Flit tve bavL' Hn-oii titi linok uihitii ihn sultjeci l>y pii AtEicrtcau 
■vtTller ivbicl] 1« »fo KHtjifticiory on the Ptvire cif tciaoy^'iiidL'C mad tru,BlwortbUat;iyB 
as ' r\ btudy of MojIettp/ Ijy Davlrl A. We1ls.“—J^u? YorLifun. 

LIl-’E LV Tin; SOUTnWF-ST. By l[. W, Pierpos, D. IC VVIU, 
1 Host rat ions by W. L. n'^heppard. liiim Ciotli, New cheap 

edit inn,, pajHiT, 50 eenil.s, 

“II kAA ncfflllAr AKraeltiTift^ En Et.* Iiti’-rary raetbodP, he rich awd qtlEct bumCir, 
ipj llic ^eulal spirU uf U* Anili^tr.''—7’^^ VtUfc* 

New' York: D* APPLBTON Jc CO., 1, 3, A: 5 Bond Street. 








It.* •; 

--.A • ^ —r>-